A Study to Evaluate the effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on Depression Awareness among teachers in selected colleges of Rajkot

 

Bhakti Kotak, Ivin Manoj, Jeenath Justin Doss. K.

Shri Anand Institute of Nursing, Opp. Ghanteshwar Park, B/h Sainik Society, Jamnagar Road, Rajkot – 360006.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: kotakbhakti.1198@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

A pre- experimental study to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding depression awareness among college teachers of selected colleges at Rajkot. The objectives of the study were (a) To assess the depression awareness among teachers. (b) To evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on depression awareness. (c) To find out the association between selected demographical variables with knowledge scores of depression awareness programme. The research approach selected for the study was quantitative research approach and pre-experimental research design – one group pre-test post-test design. The study was conducted at selected college at Rajkot. Total 60 samples were selected sample setting based on non-probability purposive sampling. The researcher used structured questionnaire for data collection regarding demographic variables and pre-test. As a part of intervention structured teaching programme was carried out on depression awareness among college teachers. The post-test   score was measured with the same questionnaire after 07 days. The collected data were analyzed by using inferential statistical method t-test was used to evaluate the effectiveness of STP on the level of knowledge regarding depression awareness among college teachers. It revealed that there was significant improvement in the quality of life and increase the knowledge of depression awareness with the application of STP in the samples. It revealed the mean difference was 6.6, standard deviation of pre-test was 5.12, standard deviation of post-test was 7.59, and standard error was 0.7700734. The obtained ’t’-test value for the level of knowledge (-7.99) that was highly significant at p<0.05 level hence the hypothesis was accepted. It is inferred that STP was effective in increase the knowledge regarding depression awareness and improving the quality of life among college teachers at selected college at Rajkot.

 

KEYWORDS: Evaluate, Effectiveness, STP, Depression, Awareness, Teacher.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Depression is an extremely common illness affecting people of all ages, genders, different socioeconomic groups and religions in India and all over the world. Globally, an estimated 322 million people were affected by depression in 2015. Depression contributes to significant disease burden at national and global levels.

 

 

At the individual and family level, depression leads to poor quality of life, causing huge social and economic impact.

 

The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Burden of Disease Study has estimated that psychiatric disorders are among the most burdensome, around the globe and are likely to increase in subsequent decades1. They have an impact on both the economic aspects and quality-of-life of the people1.

 

There are many different mental disorders, with different presentations. They are generally characterized by a combination of abnormal thoughts, perceptions, emotions, behavior and relationships with others2.

 

Depressive disorders are common mental disorders, occurring as early as 3 years of age and across all world regions3,4.

 

NEED FOR THE STUDY:

Globally, more than 350 million people of all ages suffer from depression.6 It is projected that depression will be ranked second in the global burden of disease in terms of DALYs (disability adjusted life years) by 2020, and ranked first by 2030.7

 

Most persons with depression remain without care:

Usually, people with depression are unaware that they are suffering from depression and that it is a treatable condition. With disturbed emotions, people often deny their illness and develop a reluctance to seek help. In some instances, despite individuals knowing they are ill, they are unaware of where to proceed for treatment or are ashamed to visit a mental health professional due to the stigma of being labeled as a psychiatric patient. This contributes to a huge treatment gap for depression. Further, those who begin treatment are likely to drop out without completing the course of treatment due to various reasons, leading to frequent relapses and further widening of the treatment gap.5

 

In India, a treatment gap of 87.2–95.7% was reported for depression from community based studies.8

 

Depression is highly stigmatizing condition:

Discrimination related to depression acts as a barrier to social participation and successful vocational integration. Non-disclosure of depression is itself a further barrier to seeking help and to receiving effective treatment.9

 

Barriers to optimal management of depression:

Because of stigma still attached to psychiatric illnesses, many patients are reluctant to acknowledge to themselves or their physicians that they are experiencing emotional distress. Patient may deny or minimize symptoms, believing can handle by self, not seeing as medical in nature, concern about confidentiality, not ready to except diagnosis, fear of treatment or non-adherence with treatment plan, stigma of mental health treatment.10

 

Lack of awareness and help seeking behavior:

Depression often goes unrecognized and untreated. One reason is for this is that there is a lack of mental health literacy on the part of public, specifically a lack of knowledge about psychiatric illnesses and best treatment options for those illnesses. Moreover negative attitudes and beliefs about depression hamper help seeking behavior among lay individuals.11

 

Adolescent depression and interventions in educational settings:

Three to nine per cent of teenagers meet the criteria for depression at any one time, and at the end of adolescence, as many as 20% of teenagers report a lifetime prevalence of depression. Usual care by primary care physicians fails to recognize 30- 50% of depressed patients.12

 

OBJECTIVES

·       To assess the depression awareness among teachers.

·       To evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on depression awareness.

·       To find out the association between selected demographical variables with knowledge scores of depression awareness programme.

 

HYPOTHESIS:

·           H1: There will be significant difference between pre - test score and post test score among teachers regarding depression awareness.

·           H2: There will be association between pre-test knowledge scores with selected demographic variables.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY:

Research approach:

Quantitative research approach.

 

Research design:

Quasi experimental, One group pre - test and one group post - test design.

 

Setting:

The study was conducted in Marwadi University at Rajkot.

 

Population:

Accessible population:

Teachers of all colleges at Rajkot.

 

Target population:

Teachers of all selected colleges at Rajkot.

 

Sample:

Sample size: The sample size of the study was 60 teachers who all are working in college at Rajkot.

 

Sampling technique: The research study was conducted by non- probability purposive sampling technique.

 

Data analysis plan: The collected data was analyzed by using both descriptive and inferential statistics.

 

RESULTS:

Major study findings includes

 

A. Findings related to demographic variables of the study:

1.   The majority of 28(46.6%) the samples age is between 31-40years.

2.   The majority of 36(60%) the samples are females.

3.   The majority of 47(78.3%) the samples are belong from Hindu religion.

4.   The majority of 46(76.6%) the samples are married.

5.   The majority of 32(53.3%) the samples are Post-Graduated.

6.   The majority of 35(58.3%) the samples are having >= 11 years of working experience.

7.   The majority of 32(53.3%) the samples are having previously information on depression.

8.   The majority of 53(88.3%) the samples are attended additional educational programme.

9.   The majority of 52(86.6%) the samples referred any cases of depression.

10. The majority of 55(91.6%) the samples are not having depression in their family.

 

With regard to the effectiveness of STP in increase the awareness revealed in the post-test there was significant improvement in the quality of life and increases the level of knowledge with the application of STP. The obtained “t”-test value was (7.99) that was highly significant at p<0.05 level hence the hypothesis was accepted.

 

With regard to association between level of knowledge with their selected demographic variables age, religion, marital status, years of working experience, previous information on depression, attended additional educational programme, referred any cases, depression in their family, are significant, other demographic variables such as gender, educational qualification did not show significant association. Thus stated hypothesis is accepted and null hypothesis is rejected which shows there is significant association between effectiveness of STP and selected demographic variables.

 

CONCLUSION:

The main conclusion from this present study is that most of the college teachers in college had inadequate level of knowledge regarding depression awareness in pre- test and moderate and adequate level of knowledge regarding depression awareness in post-test. This shows the imperative need to understand the purpose of STP regarding increase  the level of knowledge regarding depression awareness among college teachers at selected college of Rajkot and it will improve the quality of life which includes the stability in  psychological, vocational and        lifestyles aspects.

 

REFERENCE:

1.      TS Sathyanarayana Rao, MS Darshan, A Tandon, R Raman, KN Karthik, N Saraswathi, et al. Suttur study: An epidemiological study of psychiatric disorders in south Indian rural population. Indian J. Psychiatry. 2014; 56(3): 238-45

2.      World Health Organization: Mental Disorders http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/mental-disorders (accessed 9 April 2018 at 4.18pm)

3.      Ferrari AJ, Somerville AJ, Baxter AJ, Norman R, Patten SB, et al. Global variation in the prevalence and incidence of major depressive disorder: a systematic review of the epidemiological literature. Psycho Med. 2013; 43(3): 471–481.

4.      Charlson FJ, Ferrari AJ, Somerville AJ, Norman R, Patten SB, et al. The epidemiological modelling of dysthymia: application for the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study. J Affect Disord. 2013; 151: 111–120

5.      Depression in India: “Let’s talk” http://www.searo.who.int/india/depression_in_india.pdf (accessed on 4 March 2018)

6.      Saxena S, Krug EG, Chestnov O. World Health Organization, editors. Preventing suicide: a global imperative. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014.

7.      Shidhaye R, Gangale S, Patel V. Prevalence and treatment coverage for depression: a population-based survey in Vidarbha, India. Soc Psychiatry Psychiat Epidemiol. 2016; 51(7): 993–1003.

8.      Lasalvia A, Zoppei S, Van Bortel T, Bonetto C, Cristofalo D, Wahlbeck K, et al. Global pattern of experienced and anticipated discrimination reported by people with major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet. 2013; 381(9860): 55–62.

9.      Goldman LS, Nielsen NH, Champion HC. Awareness, diagnosis, and treatment of Depression. JGIM. 1999; 14(9): 569-580

10.   Safwi SR, Ali A, Khalique N, Gaur RK, Usmani MA. Awareness and public knowledge about causes of depression: A community based study in adult population of Aligarh. Delhi Psychiatry Journal. 2014; 17(2): 383-386

11.   Bansal V, Goyal S, Srivastava K. Study of prevalence of depression in adolescent students of a public school. Ind Psychiatry J. 2009; 18(1): 43–46

12.   PT Satyanarayana, B Prakash, Kulkarni P, M Kishor, M Renuka. A comparative study of prevalence of mental abnormalities among high school children in tribal, rural and urban Mysuru district, Karnataka, India. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2017; 4: 809-13.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 19.02.2024         Modified on 02.03.2024

Accepted on 12.03.2024       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

A and V Pub J. of Nursing and Medical Res. 2024; 3(1):37-39.

DOI: 10.52711/jnmr.2024.08