A Study to Access the Knowledge Regarding Screening and Vaccination for the Prevention of Cervical Cancer among women aged 25-40 Years in a selected hospital at Kidangoor

 

Abhijith. A, Jasmin Joy, Joicee John, Nikhitha George, Sharon Shaji, Tessa Baby1, Santy John2

1IIIrd Bsc. Nursing Students, Little Lourdes College of Nursing, Kidangoor.

2Associate Professor, Little Lourdes College of Nursing, Kidangoor.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: tessababy2002@ gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

A descriptive study was conducted the knowledge regarding screening and vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer among women age 25 to 40 years in a selected Hospital at kidangoor convenient sampling technique was used to select samples from from women aged age 25 to 40 year the study sample consists of 14 women who came to the outside department of little lourdes mission Hospital. The data was collected using structured questionnaires to asses the knowledge regarding screening and vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer the result show that among 14 samples 31(77.5%) have average knowledge regarding screening and vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer. Only 4 (10%) have a good knowledge regarding screening and vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer. The study findings revealed that there are no significant association between knowledge regarding screening and vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer and demographic variables such as age, education, income, educational status and marital status.

 

KEYWORDS: Screening; Vaccination; Cervical Cancer; Prevention

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

The cervix or neck of the uterus is the lowest portion, part of which projects like an inverted cone into the vault of the vagina1. Cervix is a passage that allows fluid to flow inside and outside of the uterus. It is a powerful gate keeper that can open and close in ways that make pregnancy and child birth possible2.

 

Cancer is a malignant tumor which is invasive and metastasis to new site by lymph or blood. Cervical cancer is the cancer arising from cervix due to abnormal growth of cell that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in many developing countries, contributing significantly to mortality.

 

Absolute burden is expected to increase in future unless effective preventive measures was undertaken. Cervical cancer mostly occurs in women aged more than 40 years and in postmenopausal women but recent studies have shown the insurance even in women aged 25 to 40 years.

 

NEED FOR THE STUDY:

Cervical cancer rank as the first most frequent cancer among women in India, and the first most frequent cancer among women between 18 and 44 years of age. Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in India with mortality being three times higher in rural women than in urban women3.

 

According to WHO cervical cancer is fourth most; frequent cancer in women with an estimated 530,000 new cases in 2012 representing 7.9% of all female cancer. Approximately 90% (270,000) death from cervical cancer in 2015 occurred in low and middle income countries. Every year cervical cancer is diagnosed in about 5,00,000 women globally and is responsible for more than 80,000 deaths annually4.

 

Cervical cancer is the fourth most frequent cancer in women with an estimated 570,000 new cases in 2018. Of the estimated 342,000 death from cervical cancer in 2020. In the south India state of Kerala, age standardized incidence rate for cervical cancer as of 2016 was 9.9 per 1,00,000 women5.

 

The high mortality rate from cervical cancer globally could be reduced through a comprehensive approach that includes prevention, early diagnosis, effective screening and treatment programme. There are vaccine that protect against common cancer causing type of human papilloma virus and can significantly reduce the risk of cervical cancer.

 

PROBLEM STATEMENT:

A study to assess the knowledge regarding screening and vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer among women aged 25-40 years in a selected hospital at Kidangoor.

 

OBJECTIVES:

To assess the level of knowledge regarding screening and vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer among women aged 25-40 years.

 

To find out the association between knowledge regarding screening and vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer with selected demographic variables.

 

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION:

Operational definition is defined as a concept or variable in item of the process by which it is to be measure.

 

Assess:

It calculates or estimates the value importance or quality of study. It is an activity to estimate the risk knowledge on risk factors of cervical cancer among women aged 25-40 years.

 

Knowledge:

Knowledge refers to the level of understanding regarding screening and vaccination of cervical cancer against the prepared knowledge questionnaire.

 

Cervical cancer:

Cancer which occurs in the lower most part of the uterine cavity.

 

Women:

In this study women refers to the people of age 25-40 years who meet inclusion criteria.

Assumption:

Women in Kerala have inadequate knowledge regarding cervical cancer.

 

Hypothesis:

HO: There will not be significant association between the knowledge regarding screening and vaccination among women aged 25-40 years with selected demographic variables.

 

H1: There will be significant association between the knowledge regarding screening and vaccination among women aged 25-40 years with selected demographic variables

 

Delimitation:

1. Only 30 women are selected as sample.

2. This study is confined to only one setting.

 

Projected outcome:

A study to assess the knowledge regarding screening and vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer among women aged 25 - 40 years in a selected hospital Kidangoor.

 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

A study was conducted at Ahmedabad to assess the knowledge level regarding symptoms, risk factors, prevention, screening of cervical carcinoma among nursing staff. A cross sectional interview based survey was conducted among 100 nurses. Out of 100 samples, 65 respondant know vaginal discharge one of the symptoms of cervical carcinoma, other 8 respondent knew multiple sexual partner as one of the risk factor, 61 staff nurses are about pap test about only 5 undergone pap test. These study suggest the level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer should be much more improved6.

 

A study was conducted at Sikkim to assess the knowledge regarding cervical cancer among sikkimese nursing staff in India. A predesigned pretested, self administered multiple response questionnaire survey was conducted among 320 staff nurse working in various hospital of Sikkim. The result was that of 320 participant, 253 were aware of cervical cancer screening. Pap smear screening should start at 21 years to 3 years after sexual debut was known to only one third of nursing staff. Awarness was significantly more prevalent among older staff .This study suggest that there is an urgent need for reorientation course for working nurse and integration of cervical cancer prevention in the nurse crisis team in India and developing countries7.

 

METHODOLOGY:

Research design:

In this study, descriptive research design is used.

 

Setting of study:

The study is conducted in the outpatient department of Little Lourdes Mission Hospital, Kidangoor.

 

Population:

In this study the population are women between 25-40 year of age.

 

Sample:

In this study the sample are woman of age between 25-40 year and attending the outpatient department of Little Lourdes Misson Hospital, Kidangoor.

 

Sample size:

In this study the sample size is 30 number of women between 25 – 40 year of age.

 

Sampling technique:

In this study the sampling technique used was convenient sampling.

 

Criteria for sample selection:

Inclusion criteria:

·       Women who are willing to participate in the study.

·       Women of age 25-40 years who attending OPD of the hospital.

 

Exclusion criteria:

·       Women who does not know to read the language Malayalam.

·       Women who had previous exposure to the same study.

 

Method of data collection:

Data collection is a process of collecting the data needed for the study.

 

Instrument:

Instrument used for the study was structured knowledge questionnaire developed after thorough reviewing literature and articles pertaining consultation and discussion with expert.

 

Description of tool:

It consist of 2 section

Section A: Demographic of data

 

It consist of questions related to demographic data such as age, occupational status, educational status, marital status, income, religion, source of information.

 

 

Section B: structured knowledge questionnaire of Screening and vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer.

 

The questionnaire contain 22 questions. A study to assess the knowledge regarding screening and vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer among women aged 25 - 40 years. Each correct answer was given as score of 1 maximum score is

 

Score key

0-7 poor

8-14 average

15-22 good

 

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:

Section 1

Table 1: Frequency and percentage distribution of women based on age, occupational status, educational status, marital status.

Sl No

Demographic data

Frequency

Percentage n=40

1

Age(y)

 

 

25-30

14

35

30-35

15

37.5

35-40

11

27.5

2

Occupational status

 

 

Private employes

25

62.5

Govt.employes

2

5

Business

1

2.5

House wife

12

30

3

Educational status

 

 

Primary school

3

7.5

High school

6

15

Pre degree

3

7.5

Professional course

28

70

4

Marital status

 

 

Single

32

80

Married

8

20

 

Table1 show:

That among 40 samples 14(35%) were belong to the age group 25 -30, and 11(27.5%) belong to 35-40 years,most of the sample 25(62.2%) were private employs. Among 40 sample 3(7.5%) were having primary school education, 28(70%) professional course. Among 40 sample 32(80%) were single and 8(20%) were married.

Distribution of knowledge score of women between 25 – 40 years regarding the screening and prevention of cervical cancer.

 

This section deals with the analysis and interpretation of knowledge of women between 25 - 40 years regarding the screening and prevention of cervical cancer.

Table 2: Frequency and percentage of knowledge score of women between 25 -40 years regarding screening and prevention of cervical cancer.

Knowledge Score

Grade

 

Frequency

 

Percentage %

 

0-7

8-14

15-22

Poor

Average

Good

5

31

4

12.5

77.5

10

The table-2 shows that among 40 samples 4(10%) have good knowledge, 31(77.5%) have moderate knowledge and 5(12.5%) have poor knowledge regarding screening and prevention of cervical cancer.

 

Table 3: Mean and standard deviation of sample according to knowledge level of woman.

Variables

Mean

Standard Deviation

Knowledge

6.93

3.93

 

DISCUSSION:

The present study was under taken to assist the level of knowledge regarding screening and vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer among women aged 25 to 40 years. The following section deals with discussion of the study under following headings: •Finding related to the level of knowledge regarding screening and vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer among women aged 25 - 40 years; the present study finding shows that among 40 sample 77.5 percentage have average knowledge level 10 percentage have a good knowledge level and 12.5 percentage have a poor knowledge level.

 

Findings related to the association between selected demographic variables and level of knowledge regarding training and vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer among women aged 25 to 40 year. There is no Association between selected demographic variables with knowledge regarding screening and vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer among women aged 40 25 to 40 years.

 

Major Finding:

Frequency and percentage distribution of sample according to demographic data:

Among 40 sample 14 (35%) belongs to 25 -30 years, 15 (37.5%) belongs to 30 - 35 years and 11(27.5%) were in the age group of 35 - 40 years.

Among 40 sample were 25 (62.5%) were private employees, 2(5%) were Government employees, and 12 (30%) were housewife.

Among 40 sample 25 (62.5%) were private employee, 2(5%) were government employee and 12 (30%) were housewife.

 

Among 40 sample 3 (7.5%) having lower primary education, 6(15%) have high school education, 3(7.5%) have pre degree education and 28 (70%) were studied professional course.

Among 40 sample 32(80%) were unmarried and 8(20%) were married.

 

Among 40 sample 4(10%) have income less than 5000, 10(25%) have income between 5000 to 10000, 19(25%) have income between 10000 to 15000 and 16(40%) have income greater than 15000.

Among 40 sample 17(42.5%) were Hindu and 23(57.5%) were Christian.

 

Among 40 sample 7(17.5%) got information from television, 28(70%) from internet and 5(12.5%) from newspapers.

 

IMPLICATIONS:

Nursing Education:

Nursing curriculum should emphazise to provide experience for conducting programmes on cervical cancer. Basic education of nursing and Public Health professional should include the topics on screening and vaccination for prevention of cervical cancer with special focus on preventive measures, early identification and management of cervical cancer. Encourage nursing students to participate in journal clubs which includes studies related to cervical cancer. Education materials helps nursing students to plan awareness programs in the clinical as well as community setting.

 

Nursing Practice:

As a primary care provider, nurses have an important role in patient care. Health education is an integral part of holistic patient care. A nurse in the clinical field has responsibility to provide right information to the patients and their relatives regarding screening and vaccination for prevention of cervical cancer. There is a great role for health professionals to conduct awareness programs related to cervical cancer.

 

Nursing Administration:

Nursing administrator should discuss and co-ordinate various educational program beneficial for women and can take steps in implementing various awareness programs like conducting health education or preparing and distributing information pamphlet regarding cervical cancer in hospital and community centre. Inservice educational programs should be organized for nurses.

 

Nursing Research:

The study revealed that there is knowledge deficit regarding cervical cancer. There is a need for extended and intensive research various aspects of cervical cancer with large sample and experimental studies can be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching program regarding cervical cancer.

 

CONCLUSION:

Among 40 sample 15(37.5%) were belongs to the aged group 32 - 35 years. Among 40 sample 25(62.5%) were private employers. Among 40 sample 20(70%) were studied professional courses. Among 40 sample 32 (80%) were in unmarried. Among 40 sample 16(40%) have income greater than 15000. Among 40 sample 23(57.5%) were Christian.Among 40 sample 28(70%) got information from internet. There is no significant association between knowledge regarding screening and vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer and demographic variable.

 

RECOMMENDATIONS:

·       The study can be repeated on a large sample there by findings can be generated to a large population.

·       A planned teaching program can be conducted regarding selected aspects of cervical cancer.

·       The study can be conducted with the help of a self instruction module and using Pretest and post test research Design.

·       Research can be conducted to assess attitude and practice on vaccination against cervical cancer.

·       A similar study can be conducted in community setting.

·       A similar study can be conducted among mothers of adolescent girls.

 

LIMITATIONS:

The study is limited to

·       Only 40 samples women selected.

·       Only one setting.

 

REFERENCES:

1.      PR Ashalatha. Text book of Anatomy for Bsc Nursing students, 3rd edition, New Delhi, Jaypee Publishers. 2021: 325.

2.      https://my.clevelandclinic.org>body, cervix: Anatomy, Function, changes and conditions.

3.      Shivani Sharma. A study to assess the knowledge regarding cervical cancer among women in civil hospital sec-6 panchakala, International Journal of Nursing Education and Research 2022; 10(2): 137.

4.      Shivani Sharma. A study to assess the knowledge regarding cervical cancer among women in civil hospital sec-6 panchakala. International Journal of Nursing Education and Research 2022; 10(2): 138.

5.      Omkappa, Lakshmamma. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards cervical cancer and its prevention among reproductive women. Journal of Perinatal, Pediatric and Neonatal Nursing. 2021; 3(2): 25.

6.      Shan N, Singh, A Shenivas. Awarness and knowledge of cervical cancer and prevention among the Nursing staff of the technique health institution, Ahmedabad. Nightingale Nursing Time; 2021:  76.

7.      Rahman H, Kars. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards cervical cancer screening among sikkimese nursing staff in India. Nightingale Nursing Time. 2015; 36: 105-110.

 

 

 

 

Received on 29.01.2024         Modified on 19.02.2024

Accepted on 05.03.2024       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

A and V Pub J. of Nursing and Medical Res. 2024; 3(1):27-31.

DOI: 10.52711/jnmr.2024.05