A Study to Assess Knowledge regarding Scrub Typhus among adults at a selected community area, Kidangoor

 

Alfat Jolly, Ansu Siby, Bia Santhosh, Jisa Reji, Jyothish K Biju, Meable Jose,

Sneha Maria Sabu1, Chindu Rajan, Renjini Jose2, Sr. Joseena SVM3

1IIIrd Year B.Sc Nursing Students, Little Lourdes College of Nursing, Kidangoor.

2Assistant Professor, Little Lourdes College of Nursing, Kidangoor.

3Principal, Little Lourdes College of Nursing, Kidangoor.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: chindurajan11@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

A descriptive study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge regarding scrub typhus among adults at a selected community area, Kidangoor. The study was conducted in selected area of 3rd ward of Kidangoor Panchayath. The study sample consist of 30 adults. Samples are selected by using convenient sample technique. Structured knowledge questionnaire used to collect data. The result shows that among 30 samples 10(33.33%) had poor knowledge, 12(40%) had average level of knowledge and 8(26.67%) had good knowledge.

 

KEYWORDS: Assess, Knowledge, Scrub typhus, Adults.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Scrub Typhus, the first described in Japan in 1899, caused by Orientia Tsustugamushi (formerly Rickettsia) is an acute infectious disease of variable severity that is transmitted to humans by an arthropod vector of the Trombiculidae family. It affects people of all ages.1

 

In recent years, Scrub Typhus has rapidly emerged to become the major cause of acute febrile illness in many part of India, especially during the monsoon and post monsoon season of the 29 states in India, 23 have already reported the presence of Scrub Typhus.2

 

Studies from India reveal that the case fatality rate of Scrub Typhus ranges from 1.3% to 33.5% depending on the organ involvement and complications. Worldwide, there is an estimated one million new Scrub Typhus infection each year. Without appropriate treatment, the case fatality rate can reach 30% or even higher.

 

NEED FOR THE STUDY:

Scrub Typhus is one of the tropical Rickettsial infections which if left untreated can have fatal consequences. It is caused by Orientia Tsustugamushi and transmitted by the bite of the mite larvae or chiggers. It is a systemic illness and can present as a vasculitis-like infections.

 

There is an estimated one million new Scrub Typhus infections each year and over one billion people around the world are at risk. Without appropriate treatment the case fatality rate of Scrub Typhus can reach 30% or even higher. Studies from India reveal that the case fatality rate of Scrub Typhus ranges from 1.3% to 33.5% depending on the organ involvement and complications. Scrub Typhus is a re-emerging zoonotic infections which is prevalent in Central Kerala.

 

Descriptive study was conducted in Chitwan Medical College (CMC), a tertiary care teaching hospital in Chitwan. A total of 301 patients with AFI admitted in different medical units and screened for Scrub Typhus by immunoglobulin M enzyme linked immunosorbant assay were selected purposively as a study sample. Face to face interview, record review and blood reports were used to collect the required information. The result shows that 13.3% were positive for Scrub Typhus and 17.3% had equivocal results.3

 

A descriptive study was carried out to analyze the clinical and demographic profiles of patients who were positive for IgM antibodies against Orientia tsustugamushi during a 3 year period (April 2015 to March 2018). A total of 428 patients were found to have been diagnosed with scrub typhus during the study period. Result shows that 46% are males and 54% were females.4

 

PROBLEM STATEMENT:

A study to assess knowledge regarding scrub typhus among adults at a selected communityarea, Kidangoor.

 

OBJECTIVES:

       To asses knowledge regarding scrub typhus among adults.

       To find out association between knowledge level regarding scrub typhus among adults withselected demographic variables.

 

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION:

Operational definition is defined as the definition of a concept or variable in terms of procedure by in which it is to be measured.

 

Assess: It refers to the activity to estimate the knowledge on scrub typhus among adults.

Knowledge: It refers to the response of people to the item in the structured questionnaire about thescrub typhus.

 

Scrub typhus: Scrub typhus is a rickettsial disease caused by Rickettsia tsutsuganushui,characterized by fever and chills, headache, malaise, prostration, macular rash.

 

Adults: Refers to people between the age Of 20 40 years.

Assumptions

       Adults may be exposed to information regarding scrub typhus from various mass media

       Knowledge regarding scrub typhus will promote adoption of preventive measures

 

HYPOTHESIS:

H1 : There is a significant association between knowledge regarding scrub typhus and selected demographic variable.

H0 : There is no significant association between knowledge regarding scrub typhus and selected demographic variables.

Delimitations:

       The study was limited to 30 samples.

       The study was limited only to adults from selected community area, Kidangoor.

       Knowledge is assessed only through the structured knowledge questionnaire.

 

Projected Outcome:

The study is aimed to improve the knowledge of adults regarding scrub typhus.

 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted to assess knowledge regarding scrub typhus among nurses at a teaching hospital at Chitwan. A total 107 nurses were selected by probability, simple random sampling through lottery method. Result shows that almost all the respondents 90.7% had knowledge that the scrub typhus is an acute febrile infectious illness. 75.7% of respondents knew the causative agents of scrub typhus.5

 

A prospective observational study was conducted to assess clinical profile and complications of scrub typhus. The study done in department of medicine and microbiology IGMC , Shimla. A total of 330 patients more than 18 years of age admitted with febrile illness with positive IgM ELIZA were included in study. Data was collected by observation. Result shows that 75.75% were females and 24.24% were males. 89.40% were farmers. 96.66% belongs to rural areas and 3.33% belongs to urban area. 6

 

METHODOLOGY:

Research design:

The design used in the present study is descriptive survey design.

 

Setting of study:

The study was conducted in 13th ward of Kidangoor Panchayath, which is a rural area.

 

Population of study:

In this study, population refered to all adults between the age group of 20 to 40 years residing in selected setting.

 

Sample:

The present study was conducted among 30 adults between the age group of 20 to 40 years residing in selected setting, Kidangoor.

 

Sample size:

In this study, the sample size consisted of 30 adults between the age group of 20 to 40 years residing in the selected setting, Kidangoor.

 

Criteria for selection of sample Inclusion criteria:

Adults who are,

       within the age group of 20 to 40 years

       who were willing to participate in the study

       able to read and write Malayalam

 

Exclusion criteria:

Adults who are,

       not available at the time of data collection

       not willing to participate in the study

       illiterate

 

Sampling technique:

Convenient sampling technique was adopted for the study.

 

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION:

Instrument: Structured knowledge questionnaire is used for the assessment of knowledge.

 

Procedure for data collection:

Section 1: It contains baseline data, demographic variables including age, gender, educational status, religion and type of family.

Section 2: It consists of 20 questions for assessing the knowledge regarding scrub typhus.

 

Each correct answer carried 1 mark and total score was 20. According to the score obtainedknowledge was classified into :

0-6: Poor

7-13: Average

14-20: Good

 

Analysis and interpretation of data

Distribution of sample according to demographic data

Data represented among 30 samples, 22(73.33%) are female, 8(26.67% ) are male

 

Distibution of adults according to level of knowledge

Knowledge was assessed by using structured knowledge questionnaire containing 20 questions. Each correct answer carries one mark.

 

The above figure shows that among 30 samples 12 (40%) were having average knowledge,10(33.33%) were having poor knowledge, 8(26.67%) were having good knowledge.

 

Association between demographic variables and knowledge

Variable

Chi-square Value(x2)

Df

Significance

Age

31.683

6

Significant

Gender

13.836

2

Significant

Education

27.198

8

Significant

Religion

37.305

4

Significant

Type of family

51.614

2

Significant

There is significant association between knowledge of adults on scrub typhus with selected variables like age, gender, education, religion and type of family

 

DISCUSSION:

Findings related to knowledge of adults:

The present study finding shows that among 30 samples 8 (26.67%) have good knowledge, 12 (40%) have average knowledge and 10 (33.33%) have poor knowledge. According to a community based study of scrub typhus awareness among residents of urban field practice area in Central India by Ujwala U.Ukey, Sanjeev M .Choudhary. It was found that only 278 (66.34%) were heard about scrub typhus and 141 (33.66%) were not heard about scrub typhus.

 

MAJOR FINDINGS:

       Among 30 samples 10 (33.3%) were between 26 to 30 years, 10 (33.3%) were between 36 to 40 years , 6 (20%) were between 21 to 25 years , 4(13.4%) were between 31 to 35 years of age.

       Among 30 samples 22 (73.33%) were females and 8 (26.67%) were males.

       Among 30 samples 10 (33.33%) were Degree or Diploma, 7 (23.33%) were High school, 6 (20%) were Primary education, 5 (16.67%) were Higher Secondary education and 2 (6.67%) were Post Graduate

       Among 30 samples 24 (80%) were Christians and 6 (20%) were Hindus

       Among 30 samples 23 (76.7%) were nuclear family and 7 (23.3%) were joint family.

 

IMPLICATION NURSING PRACTICE:

As a vital part of the health care team, nurses can do great contribution in improving knowledge regarding scrub typhus among adults. It will contribute to decrease the occurrence of scrub typhus cases in the community. A nurse can play the key role in providing adequate and accurate information regarding scrub typhus

 

Nursing Education:

Knowledge regarding scrub typhus can prevent the further incidence of scrub typhus among public. The researcher adds better knowledge to the body of knowledge of nursing profession which can be included in the curriculum and it helps to expand the knowledge of nursing students.

 

Nursing Administration:

The nurse administrator can motivate staff members to give awareness regarding scrub typhus among patients under care and their families.

 

Nursing Research:

Research is the major factor in changing practice, education and policy. A nurse, as an important healthcare professional, should take initiative to conduct research regarding scrub typhus.

 

LIMITATION:

       The study is limited to small number of 30 samples.

       The study is limited only to adults from selected community area, Kidangoor.

       The study is assessed using only limited number of questions.

 

RECOMMENDATIONS:

       As similar study can be conducted with a large sample so that the findings can be generalized.

       As similar study can be conducted in different target populations such as other age group.

       A similar study can be conducted between the urban population and rural population.

 

CONCLUSION:

The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of the adult population regarding scrub typhus. The following conclusion was drawn from the findings of the study. Among the 30 samples 8 (26.67%) of adults have good knowledge regarding scrub typhus,12 (40%) of adults have average knowledge regarding scrub typhus and 10 (33.33%) of adults have poor knowledge regarding scrub typhus.

 

REFERENCE:

1.      Chakraborty S, Sarma N, Scrub Typhus: An Emerging Threat. Indian J Dermatol. 2017; 62(5): 478-485.

2.      Navaneet Sharma, Manisha Biswal, Abhay Kumar. Scrub Typhus in a tertiary care hospital in Northern India. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2016; 95(2):447- 451.

3.      Sharma K, Neupane M, Poudyal S. Prevalence and knowledge of Scrub Typhus in patients with acute febrile illness. Int J Med Sci. 2019; 8(11):897- 901.

4.      Sariga I, Karthika S S,Ratnam PV, Clinical and demographic study of Scrub Typhus, Int J Med Sci. 2018; 6(11):3534-3637.

5.      Pradeepti Gautam, Sunitha Paudyal. Knowledge regarding Scrub Typhus among nurses at a teaching hospital in Chitwan. Journal of Chitwan Medical College. 2017; 7(21):50-54.

6.      Kumar R, Thakur S, Bhavani R. Clinical profile and complications of Scrub Typhus: hospital based study in sub Himalayan region. ASSOC Physicians India. 2016; 64(12) :30-34.

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 23.01.2024 Modified on 12.02.2024

Accepted on 26.02.2024 A&V Publications All right reserved

A and V Pub J. of Nursing and Medical Res. 2024; 3(1):23-26.

DOI: 10.52711/jnmr.2024.04