A Study to assess the Correlation between Stress, Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure among adolescents in selected Pre-University Colleges, Mangaluru

 

Jesline Mona Pinto1, Veena Gretta Tauro2

1M.Sc (N) Department of Child Health Nursing, Masood College of Nursing, Mangaluru, Karnataka. India.

2Principal, Masood College of Nursing, Mangaluru, Karnataka. India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: joslinemonapinto@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Majority of the adolescents undergo stress, whatever the sources may be internal or external, it hampers the major functioning of the body. Most of the youngsters face multiple problems in their life. Each individual has to cope with different kinds of pressure laid down by the society and family. Correlational Descriptive design to assess the Correlation between Stress, Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure among adolescents in selected Pre-University colleges, Mangaluru. The data collection instruments were Demographic proforma, Perceived stress scale and clinical profile. The results of the study revealed regarding level of stress majority 93(77.50%) had moderate level of stress, 16(13.33%) had high level of stress and only 11(9.17%) had low level of stress among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges. Majority 73(60.84%) had healthy weight, 46(38.33%) were underweight, one (0.83%) were overweight and none were obese among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges. Majority 92(76.67%) had normal blood pressure, 28(23.33%) were prehypertensive and none were in stage 1 and 2 of hypertension among adolescents studying in pre university colleges. Correlation between stress and BMI was weak negative (r= -0.0964) indicating that increase in stress level among adolescents their BMI decreases or vice versa. Correlation between BMI and systolic blood pressure was weak positive (r = 0.0762) indicating increase in BMI among adolescents there is increase in Systolic blood pressure or vice versa. The correlation between BMI and diastolic blood pressure was weak positive (r = 0.0853) indicating increase in BMI among adolescents there is increase in diastolic blood pressure or vice versa. correlation between stress and systolic blood pressure was weak positive (r = 0.023) indicating increase in stress among adolescents there is increase in Systolic blood pressure or vice versa. The correlation between BMI and diastolic blood pressure was weak positive (r = 0.003) indicating increase in stress among adolescents there is increase in diastolic blood pressure or vice versa. Hence, the null hypothesis was rejected H01 and research hypothesis was accepted. There was significant association between stress and in all demographic variables like Age in years, Religion, Class of study, Type of family, Number of siblings, Education of father, Education of mother, Occupation of father, Occupation of mother, Family Income per month and type of food consumed (p<0.05) except in stream of division (p>0.05). There was significant association between BMI and in all demographic variables like Class of study, Type of family, Number of siblings, Education of father, Education of mother, Occupation of father, Occupation of mother, Family Income per month and type of food consumed (p<0.05) except in Age in years, Religion, stream of division (p>0.05).There was significant association between systolic blood pressure and in demographic variables like Age in years, Religion, stream of division, Class of study, Education of father, Education of mother, Occupation of mother, Family Income per month and type of food consumed (p<0.05) except in Number of siblings, Type of family, Occupation of father and type of food consumed (p>0.05). Hence the research hypothesis was accepted and null hypothesis rejected. There was significant association between diastolic blood pressure and in demographic variables like Age in years, Religion, stream of division, Class of study, Number of siblings, Education of father, Education of mother, Occupation of father, Family Income per month and type of food consumed (p<0.05) except in Type of family, Occupation of mother and type of food consumed (p>0.05).

 

KEYWORDS: Stress, BMI, Blood pressure, Adolescents, Pre university college.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

In the present scenario, as the society is influenced by modernization and westernization, the path from adolescence to adulthood is endowed with stress. This is true, especially in the case of adolescents as they have to face greater stress in the form of parental ambitions and highly competitive academic and job environments.1

 

Majority of the adolescents undergo stress, whatever the sources may be internal or external, it hampers the major functioning of the body. Most of the youngsters face multiple problems in their life. Each individual has to cope with different kinds of pressure laid down by the society and family. Most of the youngsters are reluctant to share their problems with their parents, this leads to depression and stress. Stress is categorized by feelings of tension, frustration, worry, sadness and withdrawal, which commonly last for few days2

 

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. A high BMI can be an indicator of high body fatness. BMI can be used to screen for weight categories that may lead to health problems. Overweight is strongly related to high blood pressure and consequences of the increasing prevalence of overweight will be enormous in the future.3

 

Researchers have found that the main sources of stress in the academic environment are exams, homework and work outside of school, giving presentations, competition with classmates, and academic overload and animal models. However, not all sources of stress are academic, as family problems, anxiety about upcoming school terms, and difficulty adapting to change and body image perception have also been identified as important stressors. To prevent negative outcomes associated with stress, such as suicide, depression and anxiety we must measure students’ stress to help those in need to improve their coping strategies so they can manage stress and thereby improve their quality of life.4

 

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

A Study to assess the Correlation between Stress, Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure among adolescents in selected Pre-University colleges, Mangaluru.

 

OBJECTIVES:

The objectives of the study are

·      To assess the Stress among adolescents studying in selected pre- university colleges, Mangaluru.

·      To assess the BMI among adolescents studying in selected pre- university colleges, Mangaluru.

·      To assess the Blood Pressure among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges, Mangaluru.

·      To find out the correlation between Stress, BMI and Blood Pressure among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges, Mangaluru.

·      To find out the association between the stress among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges and their selected demographic variables.

·      To find out the association between BMI among adolescents studying in selected pre- university colleges and their selected demographic variables.

·      To find out the association between Blood Pressure among adolescents studying in selected pre- university colleges and their selected demographic variables.

 

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:

The hypothesis will be tested at 0.05 level of significance

H1:   There will be a significant correlation between the Stress, BMI and Blood Pressure among adolescents studying in Pre-university colleges.

H2:   There will be a significant association between stress and the selected demographic variables among adolescents studying in Pre-university colleges.

H3:   There will be a significant association between BMI and the selected demographic variables among adolescents studying in Pre-university colleges.

H4:   There will be a significant association between Blood Pressure and the selected demographic variables among adolescents studying in Pre-university colleges.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Research approach: The researcher utilized descriptive research approach

 

Research design: In this study, Correlational Descriptive design was adapted.

 

Research setting: The setting for the study was students of pre university college in selected PU college, mangaluru.

 

Population: In this study, population consists students of pre university college in selected PU college, mangaluru

 

Sample: The sample would consist of 120 adolescents of Pre-university colleges, Mangaluru

 

Sampling technique: Pre-university colleges for the study is selected by Purposive sampling technique and the samples of the study is selected by stratified random sampling technique.

 

Description of the final tools: The tool used in the study consists of 2 parts

 

Part I: Demographic performa

Part II: Perceived Stress Scale to assess Stress

Part III: Clinical variables like blood pressure and BMI

 

Plan for data analysis:

The data obtained was planned to be analyzed by both descriptive and inferential statistics, on the basis of objective of the study. To compute the data, a master data sheet was prepared by the investigator. Frequency and percentage of data would be calculated for describing demographic variables. Karl Pearson Correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between stress, body mass index and blood pressure. Chi square test to be used to find out the association between stress, body mass index and blood pressure with their selected demographic variables. Pictorial and graphic format would be used.

 

RESULTS:

Section I: Description of sample characteristics:

In the present study, a total of 120 adolescent pre university students participated. Regarding age of the adolescents, almost equal 56(46.67%) and 58(48.33%) were in the age group of 16 and 17 years respectively. Only six (5%) were of 18 years. Considering religion, majority 62(51.7%) were Hindu, 52(43.3%) were Christian and six (5%) were Muslims. Regarding class of study, equal number 60(50%) were selected from 1st PUC and 2nd PUC.In referring to stream of education, equal number 40(33.33%) were selected from science, arts and commerce. Regarding type of family, majority 93(77.5%) belonged to nuclear family, 27(22.5%) belong to joint family and none were in extended family. Regarding number of children, majority 64(53.3%) had one, 20(16,7%) had two and 18(15%) each had more than two and none. Regarding the education of father’s most 28(23.3%) of the fathers had completed their PUC/diploma, 21(17.5%) completed post-graduation, 18(15%) each completed high school education and graduation, 16(13.3%) completed higher primary school, 12(10%) completed primary schooling and seven (5.8%) were illiterate. While considering the education of mother most 26(21.7%) of mothers had completed their PUC/diploma, 23(19.2%) higher primary, 19(15.8%) each completed high school education and post-graduation, 15 (12.5%) were graduates, 10 (8.3%) completed primary schooling and eight (6.7%) were illiterate. Most 37(30.8%) of adolescent’s fathers were having business, 27(22.5%) were daily wagers, 25(20.8%) were doing other occupation, 18 (15%) were professionals, 10(8.3%) were agriculturists and three (2.5%) were unemployed/homemakers. Most 61(50.8%) of urban school children’s mothers were homemakers, 22(18.3%) had business, 21(17.5%) were professionals, 11(9.2%) had other occupation, three (2.5%) had business and two (1.7%) were agriculturists. While considering the monthly income of the family 42(35%) had income above 15001, 40(33.3%) had income between 5001 and 10000, 32(26.7%) had income between 10001 and 15000, and six (5%) had income <5000.Regarding type of food, majority 98 (81.67%) were non vegetarian, 14(11.7%) were vegetarian and eight (6.66%) were eggetarian.

 

Section II: Assessment of Level of Stress among adolescents studying in selected pre- university colleges.

Table 1: Frequency and percentage distribution of adolescents according to their level of stress.                            n=120

Level of stress

Frequency (f)

Percentage (%)

Low stress

11

9.17

Moderate stress

93

77.50

High stress

16

13.33

 

The data in Table 1 reveals that majority 93 (77.50%) had moderate level of stress, 16 (13.33%) had high level of stress and only 11 (9.17%) had low level of stress among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges.

 

Section III: Assessment of BMI among adolescents studying in selected pre- university colleges.

 

Table 2: Frequency and percentage distribution of adolescents according to their BMI.                                            n=120

BMI CLASSIFICATION

Frequency (f)

Percentage (%)

Under Weight

46

38.33

Healthy Weight

73

60.84

Over Weight

01

0.83

Obese

0

0

 

The data in Table 2 reveals that majority 73 (60.84%) had healthy weight, 46 (38.33%) were underweight, one (0.83%) were overweight and none were obese among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges.

 

 

Section IV: Assessment of blood pressure among adolescents studying in selected pre- university colleges.

Table 3: Frequency and percentage distribution of adolescents according to their blood pressure.                         n=120

Classification

Systolic blood pressure

Diastolic blood pressure

Frequency

(f)

Percentage

(%)

Frequency

(f)

Percentage

(%)

Normal

92

76.67

120

100

Prehypertension

28

23.33

0

0

Stage 1 hypertension

0

0

0

0

Stage 2 hypertension

0

0

0

0

 

The data in Table 3 reveals that majority 92 (76.67%) had normal systolic blood pressure, 28 (23.33%) were systolic prehypertensive and none were in systolic stage 1 and 2 of hypertension whereas in 120 (100%) had diastolic normal blood pressure among adolescents studying in pre university colleges.

 

Section V: Assessment of the correlation between Stress, BMI and Blood Pressure among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges.

Table 4: Correlation between Stress and BMI among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges          n=120

Parameters

Mean ±SD

Coefficient of correlation (r)

Inference

Stress

26.67±8.76

-0.0964

Weak negative correlation

BMI

19.31± 2.60

 

The above table 4 revealed that the correlation between stress and BMI was weak negative (r=-0.0964) indicating that increase in stress level among adolescents their BMI decreases or vice versa. Hence, the null hypothesis was rejected H01 and research hypothesis was accepted indicating that there is significant relationship between Stress and BMI among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges.

 

Table 5: Correlation between BMI and Blood Pressure among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges    n=120

Parameters

Mean ±SD

Coefficient of correlation (r)

Inference

BMI

19.31± 2.60

0.0762

Weak positive correlation

Systolic blood pressure

118.83±7.58

BMI

19.31±2.60

0.0853

 

Weak positive correlation

Diastolic blood pressure

70±7.56

 

The above table 5 revealed that the correlation between BMI and systolic blood pressure was weak positive (r = 0.0762) indicating increase in BMI among adolescents there is increase in Systolic blood pressure or vice versa. The correlation between BMI and diastolic blood pressure was weak positive (r=0.0853) indicating increase in BMI among adolescents there is increase in diastolic blood pressure or vice versa. Hence, the null hypothesis was rejected H01 and research hypothesis was accepted indicating that there is significant relationship between BMI and blood pressure among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges.

 

Table 6: Correlation between Stress and Blood Pressure among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges     n=120

Parameters

Mean ±SD

Coefficient of correlation (r)

Inference

Stress

26.67±8.76

0.023

Weak positive correlation

Systolic blood pressure

118.83±7.58

Stress

26.67±8.76

0.003

Weak positive correlation

Diastolic blood pressure

70±7.56

 

The above table 6 revealed that the correlation between stress and systolic blood pressure was weak positive (r = 0.023) indicating increase in stress among adolescents there is increase in Systolic blood pressure or vice versa. The correlation between BMI and diastolic blood pressure was weak positive (r=0.003) indicating increase in stress among adolescents there is increase in diastolic blood pressure or vice versa. Hence, the null hypothesis was rejected H01 and research hypothesis was accepted indicating that there is significant relationship between stress and blood pressure among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges.

 

Section VI: Association between the stress among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges and their selected demographic variables.

H02:       There will be no significant association between stress and the selected demographic variables among adolescents studying in Pre-university colleges.

Chi square test is computed to test the hypothesis.

 

Table 7: Association between stress among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges and their selected demographic variables                                                                                                 n=120

Sl.no

Demographic variables

χ2

df

P value

1.

Age in years

93.58*

1

p<0.05

2.

Religion

5.71*

1

p<0.05

3.

Class of study

104.63*

1

p<0.05

4.

Stream of division

0.601

2

p>0.05

5.

Type of family

4.46*

1

p<0.05

6.

Number of siblings

35.92*

2

p<0.05

7.1

Education of father

75.59*

4

p<0.05

7.2.

Education of mother

75.86*

4

p<0.05

8.1.

Occupation of father

20.52*

3

p<0.05

8.2

Occupation of mother

21.86*

2

p<0.05

9.

Family Income per month

57.15*

3

p<0.05

10

Type of food

6.13*

1

p<0.05

p<0.05 * Significant

 

Data in table 7 shows that there was significant association between stress and in all demographic variables like Age in years, Religion, Class of study, Type of family, Number of siblings, Education of father, Education of mother, Occupation of father, Occupation of mother, Family Income per month and type of food consumed (p<0.05) except in stream of division (p>0.05). Hence the research hypothesis was accepted and null hypothesis rejected.

 

Section VII: Association between the BMI among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges and their selected demographic variables.

To test the association between BMI among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges and their selected demographic variables following hypothesis was formulated:

H03:       There will be no a significant association between BMI and the selected demographic variables among adolescents studying in Pre-university colleges.

Chi square test is computed to test the hypothesis

 

Table 8: Association between BMI among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges and their selected demographic variables                                                                                                n=120

Sl.no

Demographic variables

χ2

df

P value

1.

Age in years

0.14

1

p>0.05

2.

Religion

5.72

2

p>0.05

3.

Class of study

112.13*

1

P<0.05

4.

Stream of division

0.067

2

p>0.05

5.

Type of family

4.27*

1

P<0.05

6.

Number of siblings

8.14*

2

P<0.05

7.1

Education of father

74.05*

3

P<0.05

7.2.

Education of mother

56.44*

2

P<0.05

8.1.

Occupation of father

27.81*

3

P<0.05

8.2

Occupation of mother

29.018*

3

P<0.05

9.

Family Income per month

59.98*

3

P<0.05

10

Type of food

13.51*

2

P<0.05

p<0.05 * Significant

 

Data in table 8 shows that there was significant association between BMI and in all demographic variables like Class of study, Type of family, Number of siblings, Education of father, Education of mother, Occupation of father, Occupation of mother, Family Income per month and type of food consumed (p<0.05) except in Age in years, Religion, stream of division (p>0.05). Hence the research hypothesis was accepted and null hypothesis rejected.

 

Section VIII: Association between the blood pressure among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges and their selected demographic variables.

H02: There will be no a significant association between blood pressure and the selected demographic variables among adolescents studying in Pre-university colleges.

Chi square test is computed to test the hypothesis.

 

Table 9: Association between blood pressure among adolescents studying in selected pre-university colleges and their selected demographic variables n=120

Sl.

no

Demographic

variables

Systolic blood pressure

Diastolic pressure

χ2

df

P

value

χ2

df

P value

1.

Age in years

5.96*

1

p <0.05

4.80*

1

p <0.05

2.

Religion

8.98*

2

p <0.05

7.21*

2

p <0.05

3.

Class of study

32.64*

1

p <0.05

43.53*

1

p <0.05

4.

Stream of division

25.64*

2

p <0.05

13.87*

1

p <0.05

5.

Type of family

0.13

1

p>0.05

0.42

1

p>0.05

6.

Number of siblings

6.56

3

p>0.05

8.42*

3

p <0.05

7.1

Education of father

21.10*

3

p <0.05

29.52*

4

p <0.05

7.2.

Education of mother

22.38*

3

p <0.05

23.98*

4

p <0.05

8.1.

Occupation of father

5.70

3

p>0.05

10.51*

2

p <0.05

8.2

Occupation of mother

12.24*

2

p <0.05

0.12

1

p>0.05

9.

Family Income per month

25.39*

2

p <0.05

35.79*

2

p <0.05

10

Type of food

2.32

1

p>0.05

3.50

1

p>0.05

p<0.05 * Significant

 

Data in table 9 shows that there was significant association between systolic blood pressure and in demographic variables like Age in years, Religion, stream of division, Class of study, Education of father, Education of mother, Occupation of mother, Family Income per month and type of food consumed (p<0.05) except in Number of siblings, Type of family, Occupation of father and type of food consumed (p>0.05). Hence the research hypothesis was accepted and null hypothesis rejected.

 

There was significant association between diastolic blood pressure and in demographic variables like Age in years, Religion, stream of division, Class of study, Number of siblings, Education of father, Education of mother, Occupation of father, Family Income per month and type of food consumed (p<0.05) except in Type of family, Occupation of mother and type of food consumed (p>0.05). Hence the research hypothesis was accepted and null hypothesis rejected.

 

DISCUSSION:

In the present study confirmed that there was a Correlation between stress and BMI was weak negative (r=-0.0964) indicating that increase in stress level among adolescents their BMI decreases or vice versa. Correlation between BMI and systolic blood pressure was weak positive (r=0.0762) indicating increase in BMI among adolescents there is increase in Systolic blood pressure or vice versa. The correlation between BMI and diastolic blood pressure was weak positive (r=0.0853) indicating increase in BMI among adolescents there is increase in diastolic blood pressure or vice versa. correlation between stress and systolic blood pressure was weak positive (r= 0.023) indicating increase in stress among adolescents there is increase in Systolic blood pressure or vice versa. The correlation between BMI and diastolic blood pressure was weak positive (r=0.003) indicating increase in stress among adolescents there is increase in diastolic blood pressure or vice versa.

 

There was significant association between stress and in all demographic variables like Age in years, Religion, Class of study, Type of family, Number of siblings, Education of father, Education of mother, Occupation of father, Occupation of mother, Family Income per month and type of food consumed (p<0.05) except in stream of division (p>0.05). There was significant association between BMI and in all demographic variables like Class of study, Type of family, Number of siblings, Education of father, Education of mother, Occupation of father, Occupation of mother, Family Income per month and type of food consumed (p<0.05) except in Age in years, Religion, stream of division (p>0.05). There was significant association between systolic blood pressure and in demographic variables like Age in years, Religion, stream of division, Class of study, Education of father, Education of mother, Occupation of mother, Family Income per month and type of food consumed (p<0.05) except in Number of siblings, Type of family, Occupation of father and type of food consumed (p>0.05).

 

Findings of the study can be discussed with A descriptive study undertaken to compare the blood pressure, BMl, and stress. The study sample consisted of 200 BSC nursing students from selected College of Nursing in udupi district. Non probability purposive sampling technique was used. There was no significant difference among blood pressure, Body Mass Index in various batches of Bsc nursing students with the (r value -0.295, 0.330 at pvalue- 0.001, 0.001). There is no significant relationship between stress and BP .Negative relationship was found between stress and diastolic blood pressure (“r” value-0.038, 0.022 “p” value-0.594, 0.752). There is significant negative relationship between BMI and stress “r’value-0.152 at “p” value-0.031. 5

 

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:

1.    Study is limited to assessing the level of stress, BMI and blood pressure.

2.    Sample size of the study was 120 samples hence the generalization is limited.

3.    External validity is limited as there is no control group.

4.    Data collection period was only one month.

 

RECOMMENDATIONS:

On the light of present study the investigator suggest the following recommendations:

1.    Similar kind of study can be performed in large scale and in different settings such as Schools, offices, colleges and in communities.

2.    A similar study can be done with an experimental and control group from different settings.

3.    A similar study can be done to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding to different methods stress management, BMI and blood pressure.

4.    A similar study can be done among other samples.

5.    A similar study can be done using different teaching strategy regarding to different methods stress management, BMI and blood pressure.

 

REFERENCE:

1.     Maternal, new born, child and adolescents health. https://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/adolescence/development/en/. WHO.

2.     Report of the Sub-Group on adolescents for the Tenth Five Year Plan. http://www.planningcommission.nic.in/aboutus/committee/wrkgrp/wg_adolcnts.pdf. Planning commission Government of India.

3.     Verma S, Gupta J. Some aspects of high academic stress and symptoms. Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies. 1990; 6:7-12.

4.     Kadapatti MG. Prevalence of academic stress among students. International Journal of Home Science. 2017; 3(3): 461-463.

5.     Stress among Adolescents. http://www.indiaeducation.net/stress-management/stress-among-adolescents.aspx.

 

 

 

 

Received on 23.09.2023        Modified on 04.10.2023

Accepted on 14.10.2023       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

A and V Pub J. of Nursing and Medical Res. 2023; 2(4):125-130.

DOI: 10.52711/jnmr.2023.31