A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Basil Oil Application on Quality of Sleep among Visually Challenged Elderly Persons at selected Visually Challenged Home in Trichy

 

Alphone Amala Julie1, G. Grace Jebakani Sweety2, P. Sagayamary3

1II Year M.Sc Nursing Student, Our Lady of Health College of Nursing, Thanjavur.

2Professor, Department of Community Health Nursing, Our Lady of Health College of Nursing, Thanjavur.

3Principal and HOD, Department of Child Health Nursing, Our Lady of Health College of Nursing, Thanjavur.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: gracesweety196@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of basil oil application on quality of sleep among visually challenged elderly persons at selected visually challenged home in Trichy. Pre experimental research design was used for this study. Samples were selected by using purposive sampling technique. The investigator assessed the quality of sleep by using Modified Chol Shin sleep quality scale among visually challenged elderly persons in visually challenged home. After pretest, on the next day basil oil was applied for visually challenged elderly persons for 30 days. On 31st day the investigator assessed the posttest level of quality of sleep among visually challenged elderly persons. The mean value was 37.73 with standard deviation 14.26. The t‟ test value (calculated value) = 12.2 and the calculated value was higher than (Table value) = 2.05 (CV>TV). The statistical analysis reveals that there were significant differences in posttests levels of quality of sleep among visually challenged elderly persons. So the given basil oil application was effective in promoting sleep among the visually challenged elderly persons.

 

KEYWORDS: Basil oil, Visually challenged elderly persons, Sleep quality scale, Quality of sleep.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Sleep is one of the most essential requirements for the human body to function properly. It plays a vital role in ensuring both physically as well as mentally. It also helps in maintaining a decent and healthy life. Good sleep maintains optimal health but for many older adults sleep can be a challenge. Poor sleep connected with depression, memory loss difficulties and an increased risk of falls and accident. The prevalence of blindness was higher among older individuals cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma were considered as the main causes of blindness.

 

Patients with progressive visual loss are more vulnerable to sleep disturbance than those with normal ocular transduction, sleep wake disorders occur in 50% to 70% of blind patients. One of the study in New Zealand study found that blind and visually impaired patients experienced more sleep disorders (Yuan He , 2020)1.

 

Many people who are blind or visually impaired have difficulty in sleeping. Currently, about 1 million Americans are legally blind and it will be double by 2050. Among those approximately 10% are totally blind, with no light perception. And 70% having trouble sleeping at night. The main causes of sleep problem in blind and visually impaired people are disruption in circadian rhythm.

 

Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics (2000) revealed that the proportion of visual impairment increased with an age and it is more common in each age group of women. Poor sleep occurred in 14.4% of the men and 27.9% of the women (Asplund R, 2000)2.

 

The Journal of Gerontology series (2022) revealed that the associations between sleep complaints and reported visual impairment in an urban community-residing older adult sample. A total of 1118 volunteers participated. In this report sleep problems and visual impairment among older adults reveals that 9% used sleep medicine, 25% reported difficulty falling asleep 52% indicated maintaining sleep, 28% reported waking up early in the morning and 12% reported day time sleep longer than 2 hour.

 

NEED FOR THE STUDY:

World population prospects (2019) By 2050, one in six people in the world will be over age 65(16%). National commission on population in India (2020) reports 138 million elderly persons in India year. Ministry of statistics and programme implementation Government of India (2022) projects a substantial increase in the population of senior citizens in Tamil Nadu to be 1.42crores in 20313.

 

A good sleep is a physiological healer with anti-aging effects. Sleep deprivation will be resulted in back pain, hypertension, obesity, and precipitate diabetes, memory issues, psychological problems. Sleep related problem seen among senior citizens living alone (17.7%) than those living with spouse and children (11.4%) in India (Irwin MR, 2015)4. Non pharmacological approaches heal sleep problems at the rate of 70% to 80% and could be used as a first step of treatment especially in older individuals who frequently experience drug interactions. On pharmacological methods for sleep problems include a number of methods such as massage, listening to music, progressive relaxation exercises, phototherapy, and aromatherapy. Aromatherapy is a natural treatment in which essential oils derived from plants are applied via massage, friction, inhalation, compress, and bath.

 

Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum (or) Ocimum santum) is an aromatic shrub. It was originated in north central India and now grows throughout the Eastern World. It is one of the most common house plant in India. Extracts oils and supplements can also be made from holy basil seeds, leaves, flowers and stems. It is used for 1000 years. Basil oil naturally carries linalool, a chemical that helps to reduce nervous tension. It has natural stimulating properties. It is commonly used to reduce stress, insomnia, and increase sleep efficiency. It is also used to soothe joints and muscle pain, clear breathing passage and cool the skin (Santos ERQ et al)5.

 

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

A study to assess the effectiveness of basil oil application on quality of sleep among visually challenged elderly persons at selected visually challenged home in Trichy.

 

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

·      To assess the pretest and posttest level of quality of sleep among the visually challenged elderly persons.

·      To evaluate the effectiveness of basil oil application on quality of sleep among visually challenged elderly persons.

 

HYPOTHESES:

All the hypotheses will be tested at 0.05 level of significant

H1: There will be a significant difference in pretest and posttest level of quality of sleep among visually challenged elderly persons.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Research approach:

Quantitative research approach was used

 

Research design:

Pre experimental design with one group pretest and posttest was used

 

Variables of the study:

·      Independent variable-Basil oil application

·      Dependent variable- Quality of sleep

·      Demographic variables- Age, religion, duration of stay, nature of blindness, dietary pattern, habit of drinking milk before bed time, habit of daytime sleep, any comorbidity, spiritual routines and listening music.

 

Setting of the study:

The study was conducted among visually challenged elderly persons at Trichy, Lobra Blind Home run by non-governmental organization which was located 5 km from Trichy bus stand. The home consisted of 150 visually challenged elderly persons.

 

Population:

The population comprised of visually challenged elderly persons.

 

Sample:

The sample comprised of visually challenged elderly persons residing at selected visually challenged home in Trichy.

 

Sample size:

The sample size comprised of 30 samples.

 

 

Sampling technique:

Non probability purposive sampling was used in this study.

 

Criteria for sample selection:

Inclusion criteria:

Visually challenged elderly persons.

·      Who could able to follow the instructions.

·      Who were willing to participate in the study.

·      Who could understand either Tamil or English.

 

Exclusion criteria:

Visually challenged elderly persons

·      Who were taking sleeping pills.

·      Who were suffered from any mental illness.

 

Description and interpretation of the tool:

·      Part-1: Demographic variables such as age, religion, duration of stay, nature of blindness, dietary pattern, habit of drinking milk before bed time, habit of daytime sleep, any comorbidity , spiritual routines before bed time and listening music before bed time.

·      Part-2; Assessment of the quality of sleep by Modified Chol shin sleep quality scale.

Positive statements: (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29) Negative statements: (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30)

 

Scoring procedure:

SCORE

INTERPRETATION

1-30

Good sleep

31-60

Disturbed sleep

61-90

Poor sleep

 

For positive statement the score was given as below

3. Rarely

2. Sometimes

1. Often

0. Almost always

 

For negative statement the score was given as below

0.    Almost always

1.    Often

2.    Sometimes

3.    Rarely

 

Reliability and validity of the tool:

Reliability- Reliability of the tool was done by test retest method and the tool was found to be practicable and feasible. r=0.8 (Karl Pearson co efficient formula)

Validity – The data collection tool was validated by five experts of department of mental health nursing.

 

Method of data collection:

Formal permission was obtained from the institution director of Lobra blind home, Trichy. The 30 samples were collected by purposive sampling technique. Self-introduction and explanation regarding the nature, purposes and benefits of the study was given to the participants by the investigator. Oral consent was obtained from the participants. Pretest was conducted with Modified Chol Shin Sleep Quality scale. Pretest was conducted with Modified Chol Shin Sleep Quality scale. After the pretest, 5 ml of basil oil was applied from the upper neck to the upper part of the chest including upper part of the back for two hours before sleep for a period of 30 days. Posttest was conducted after the intervention period. Posttest was conducted after the intervention period. The data was analyzed by the descriptive and inferential statistics.

 

Plan for data analysis:

The collected data was tabulated and analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical method.

 

S. No

Data analysis

Methods

Remarks

1

Descriptive statistics

Frequency distribution

To describe the demographic variables of visually challenged elderly person in home.

 

 

Mean and standard deviation

To assess the pretest and posttest level of quality sleep among visually challenged persons in home.

2

Inferential test

Paired ‘t ‘test

To evaluate the effectiveness of basil oil application

 

RESULTS:

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of basil oil application on quality of sleep among the visually challenged elderly persons. The collected data were grouped and analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics.

 

Table 1: Frequency and percentage distribution of pretest level of quality of sleep among the visually challenged elderly persons  N=30

Level of quality of sleep

f

(%)

Good sleep

0

0%

Disturbed sleep

12

40%

Poor sleep

18

60%

 

Table 1 shows that pretest level of quality of sleep among visually challenged elderly persons the which signifies that 12 (40%) of the elderly had disturbed level of quality of sleep, 18 (60%) of the elderly had poor level of quality of sleep and no one had good level of quality of sleep.

 

Table 2: Frequency and percentage distribution of posttest level of quality of sleep  among the visually challenged elderly persons.   N = 30

Level of Quality of Sleep

f

(%)

Good sleep

12

40%

Disturbed sleep

18

60%

Poor sleep

0

0%

 

Table 2 reveals the posttest levels of quality of sleep among visually challenged elderly persons shows that, 12 (40%) of the elderly had good level of quality of sleep, 18 (60%) of the elderly had disturbed level of quality of sleep and no one had poor level of quality of sleep.

 

Table 3 shows that before giving basil oil intervention 12 (40%) of the elderly had disturbed level of quality of sleep, 18 (60%) of the elderly had poor level of quality of sleep and no one had good level of quality of sleep. After intervention none had poor level of quality of sleep, 18(60%) of the elderly had disturbed level of quality of sleep, 12 (40%) of the elderly had good level of quality of sleep and no one had poor level of quality of sleep.

 

Table 3: Comparison of frequency and percentage distribution of level of quality of sleep  among the visually challenged elderly persons before and after giving basil oil application.           N = 30

Categor y

Level of quality of sleep

Pretest

Posttest

f

(%)

f

(%)

Good sleep

0

0%

12

40%

Disturbed sleep

12

40%

18

60%

Poor sleep

18

60%

0

0%

 

DISCUSSION:

The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of basil oil application on quality of sleep among visually challenged elderly persons at selected visually challenged home in Trichy. The study was conducted among 30 visually challenged elderly persons at selected visually challenged home in Trichy. The research participants were selected by purposive sampling method. Pretest was conducted by using demographic variables and qualities of sleep were assessed by modified Chol Shin sleep quality scale.

 

The first objective was to assess the pretest and posttest level of quality of sleep among visually challenged elderly persons:

The assessment of pretest level of quality of sleep among visually challenged elderly persons the which signifies that 12(40%) of the elderly had disturbed level of quality of sleep, 18(60%) of the elderly had poor level of quality of sleep and no one had good level of quality of sleep. The assessment of posttest levels of quality of sleep among visually challenged elderly persons shows that, 12(40%) of the elderly had good level of quality of sleep, 18(60%) of the elderly had disturbed level of quality of sleep and no one had poor level of quality of sleep.

 

This findings of the pretest and posttest level of quality of sleep was supported by the following studies:

Nicola Gordon-Seymour (2021) done a double blind, placebo control study on Low dose Holy Basil may reduce stress, improve sleep. Subjects were divided into two groups like experimental and control group. The experimental group received the holy basil oil whereas control group received only routine care. Posttest was done for both the groups. The study result revealed that, Holy basil, also known as Ocimum tenuiflorum extract, was given to the experimental group in modest dosages with results showing a reduction in stress and sleeplessness as well as an improvement in sleep quality.

 

Li-Wei Ko et al., (2021) conducted a placebo control study on essential oil aroma stimulation for enhancing slow-wave electroencephalogram (EEG) in sleeping brain. 9 subjects were selected. Before the sleep session began, a pre-session survey was conducted. It consists of the participant's daily routine, psychological state, and consumption of alcoholic and caffeinated beverages. According to the study findings revealed of that the samples who experienced the aroma of an essential oil while sleeping said that it improved their sleep quality and gave them more energy during the day.

 

The second objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of basil oil application on quality of sleep among visually challenged elderly persons:

The assessment of pretest level of quality of sleep among visually challenged elderly persons the which signifies that 12(40%) of the elderly had disturbed level of quality of sleep, 18(60%) of the elderly had poor level of quality of sleep and no one had good level of quality of sleep. The assessment of posttest levels of quality of sleep among visually challenged elderly persons shows that, 12(40%) of the elderly had good level of quality of sleep, 18(60%) of the elderly had disturbed level of quality of sleep and no one had poor level of quality of sleep.

 

The mean score of the quality of sleep among visually challenged elderly persons pretest and posttest level of were mean value 59 with standard deviation 15.94 of the pretest and had significance to the posttest mean value 37.73 with standard deviation 14.26 and the ‘t’ value Calculated value = 12.29 and Table value= which was significant at 0.05 level. There was significant difference in the pretest and posttest levels of quality of sleep among the visually challenged elderly persons which revealed that the given Basil oil was effective. Hence the research hypothesis H1 was accepted.

 

CONCLUSION:

The study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of basil oil application on quality of sleep among visually challenged elderly persons at selected visually challenged home in Trichy. The statistical analysis show that there was a significant difference between pretest and posttest level of quality of sleep In relation to the effectiveness of basil oil application, there had been improved quality of sleep. So the application of basil oil was effective to improve quality of sleep among visually challenged.

 

REFERENCES:

1      Wang H et al. Effects of physical activity and sleep quality on well-being: A wrist actigraphy study during the pandemic. Applied Psychology and Health Well Being. 2021; 13(2): 394-405.

2      Asplund R. Sleep, health and visual impairment in the elderly. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2000; 30(1): 7-15.

3      https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ageing-and-health.

4      Irwin M. R. Why sleep is important for health: a psychoneuroimmunology perspective. Annual Review of Psychology. 2015; 66: 143–172.

5      Dos Santos, ERQ et al. Linalool as a Therapeutic and Medicinal Tool in Depression Treatment: A Review. Current Neuropharmacology. 2022; 20(6): 1073–1092.

 

 

 

 

Received on 15.09.2023        Modified on 04.10.2023

Accepted on 23.10.2023       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

A and V Pub J. of Nursing and Medical Res. 2023; 2(4):113-117.

DOI: 10.52711/jnmr.2023.29