A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Diaphragmatic Breathing on selected Physiological Parameters of COPD patients in selected hospitals

 

Sajid Shaikh1, Aarti Kolekar2

1Lecturer, Gokhale Education Societyís Sir. Dr. M. S Gosavi Institute of Nursing Training and Research,

Nashik, Maharashtra, India.

2Lecturer, Dr. Vitthalrao Vikhe Patil FoundationíS College of Nursing, Viladghat, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: sajidhdu@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Background: The respiratory system consists of air passage and lungs the part of respiratory system nose parentsí clearance procedure bronchi alveoli and lungs. It is help to gas exchange in human being respiratory diseases are more responsible for human morbidity and motility. The various disease occurs in human related to respiratory. i.e. asthma pneumonia bronchitis emphysema pleural effusion COPD. Method: The research design used for this study is pre-experimental design. The study was conducted on COPD patients of selected hospitals. Target population of present study was population of COPD patients admitted in selected hospitals. The 30 samples were selected by non-probability convenient sampling technique. Result: In present study majority of (46.67) of patient too breathless to leave the bed similar study conducted by kadam v. Also observed that 23.3% of the COPD patients got short of breath when hurrying on level ground or walking up a staircase, 40% of them walk slower than people of the same age because of breathlessness and 36.7% of them had to stop for breath when doing any activity at their own pace. Conclusion:† The findings suggest that an effective diaphragmatic breathing on selected physiological parameters of COPD.

 

KEYWORDS: COPD, Diaphragmatic, Physiological parameters.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

The respiratory system consists of air passage and lungs the part of respiratory system nose parents clearance procedure bronchi alveoli and lungs. It is help to gas exchange in human being respiratory diseases are more responsible for human morbidity and motility. The various disease occurs in human related to respiratory. i.e. asthma pneumonia bronchitis emphysema pleural effusion COPD etc.

 

There are various causative factor which effect the respiratory system such as cigarette smoking air pollution tobacco allergens nowaday's the case of COPD is bin increases.

 

It is been seen in various research that chronic bronchitis and emphysema complicated as COPD. Cough chest tightness shortness of breath wheezing chest pain these symptoms in COPD patient1

 

Persons with COPD are greatly under estimated because the disease is usually not diagnosed until it is moderately advanced. Patients usually seek med 2 ical help when they have an acute respiratory infection, with dyspnoea being t he main concern. Dyspnoea is often progressive, and initially occurs with exertion, gradually interferes with daily activities and in la te stages dyspnoea may be present at rest also. The person becomes more of a chest breather, relying on the intercostal and access ory muscles rather than effective abdominal breathing. Breathing exercises may assist the patient during rest and activity by decreasing dyspnoea, improving oxygenation, and slowing the respiratory rate. Diaphragmatic breathing is primarily used to strengthen the Diaphragm. It aids in decreasing use of accessory muscles and allows for better control over Breathing.3

 

METHODS AND MATERIAL:

Quantitative Evaluator Approach was used for the study. The research design that is chosen for this study is Pre experimental One group Pre Test and Post Test design. This design is widely used in educational research. The design can be represented as The study was conducted on COPD patients of selected hospitals. The samples were selected by non probability convenient sampling technique. The samples that fulfil the inclusion criteria were admitted in study. Sample Size for the study consists of 30 COPD Patients selected as per availability and fulfilment of the preset criteria.

 

Statistical Analysis:

The analysis is the categorizing, ordering, manipulation and summering of the data obtained regarding answers to research questions. The data was analysed according to the objectives of the study using descriptive & inferential statistics

 

SECTION I- Frequency and Percentage Distribution of demographic variables of COPD patients.

Age and gender:

30 sample 6.67% of male and 6.67% of female were from age group of 40-45 year,13.34% of male and 13.34% of female were from age group 45-50 year, 26.67% of male and 20% of female were from age group 50-55year and 6.67% of male and 6.67% female were from 55 and above age group

 

Educational status:

educational status shows that among 30 sample 6.67% of male and 23.34% of female having primary education,16.67% of male and 23.34% of female having secondary education,13.34% of male were having higher secondary education, 10% of male were having graduation and 6.67% of male were having other education.

 

SECTION II- Analysis of data related to assessment of the selected physiological parameters (Pulse rate, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, SPO2 and Dyspnoea) of patients before administration of Diaphragmatic breathing technique.

 

Assessment of Dyspnoea patients before administration of Diaphragmatic breathing:

Frequency and percentage wise distribution of COPD patient before administration if diaphragmatic breathing shows 0% in Grade 0, 1 and 2 followed by 23.3% of patient included in Grade 3 ,30% of patient include in Grade 4 and highest 46.67% in Grade 5

 

Assessment of Dyspnoea of patients after administration of Diaphragmatic breathing:

23.3% of COPD patients had short of breath when hurrying on level ground or walking up a staircase, 40.0% of patient had slower walk than people of same age because of breathlessness,36.7% of patient have to stop for breath when doing any activity at their own pace, after administration of diaphragmatic breathing technique remained same till day 3, 3.3% of patient only get breathlessness with strenuous exercise, 30% of patient had short of breath when hurrying on level ground or walking up a staircase, 40.0% of patient had slower walk than people of same age because of breathlessness, 26.7% of patient have to stop for breath when doing any activity at their own on day 4,6.6% of patient only get breathlessness with strenuous exercise, 30% of patient had short of breath when hurrying on level ground or walking up a staircase, 46.7% of patient had slower walk than people of same age because of breathlessness, 46.7% of patient have to stop for breath when doing any activity at their own on day 5 the breathing improve after administration of breathing technique.

 

Assessment of the pulse rate of patients after administration of Diaphragmatic breathing:

Percentage wise distribution of COPD patient according to pulse rate of 30 sample 122.86% before administration of breathing technique with standard deviation 0.8027, after administration of diaphragmatic technique then percentage of pulse rate on day 1 is 117.2% with standard deviation of 0.6090, percentage of pulse rate on day 2 is 95.6% with standard deviation 0.6451, percentage of pulse rate on day 4 is 88.8% with standard deviation 0.7617, percentage of pulse rate on day 5 is 79.2% with standard deviation 0.4469.

 

Assessment of the respiratory rate of patients after administration of Diaphragmatic breathing:

27.40% with standard deviation of 0.6432 before administration of diaphragmatic breathing technique. After administration of diaphragmatic technique the respiratory rate went down with percentage of 24.80% with standard deviation of 0.4251 on day 1.the percentage of respiratory rate on day 2 sis 23.59 with standard deviation of 0.5430, on day 3 the percentage of respiratory rate is 22.23% with standard deviation of 0.6376, on day 4 the percentage of respiratory is 21.38% with standard deviation of 0.5538, on day 5 the percentage of respiratory rate is 18.53% with standard deviation of 0.3665 the decrease in respiratory rate was significant for day 4 and day 5after diaphragmatic breathing technique.

 

Assessment of the blood pressure of patients after administration of Diaphragmatic breathing:

COPD patient according to their blood pressure before administration of diaphragmatic breathing technique is 1.655 with standard deviation of 0.8027, after administration of diaphragmatic breathing technique the percentage of blood pressure is 1.54% with standard deviation of 0.4251 on day 1, the significant fall in percentage of blood pressure on day 2 day 3 and day 4 i.e.1.48%,1.47%,1.45% with standard deviation of 0.6090, 0.6178, 0.7216 respectively and rise of blood pressure on day 5 with percentage of 1.60% having standard deviation of 0.4469.

 

Assessment of the SPO2 of patients after administration of Diaphragmatic breathing:

COPD patient according to their SPO2 before administration of diaphragmatic breathing technique is 60% with standard deviation of 0.6432. After administration of diaphragmatic technique on day 1, day 2 and day 3 the percentage remain same i.e. 60% with variation in standard deviation of 0.4251, 0.6451, 07216 respectively. And significant rise on day 4 and day 5 with percentage of 61.33% and 70% respectively with standard deviation of 0.7183and 0.4223.

 

Association between selected demographic variables and physiological Parameters:

P-value of association between pulse rate and sex is small (less than 0.05). The null hypothesis is rejected. Demographic variable sex was found to have significant association with pulse rate P-value of association between respiratory rate and age category is small (less than 0.05). The null hypothesis is rejected

 

DISCUSSION:

Description of socio demographic variables of COPD patients:

Finding of the present study shows that highest percentage (20%) of female were in age group of (50-55) years, and the highest percentage of male (26.67), it was consists with study carried out by Kadam V. Also observed that 13.3% of the patients had age 40-50 years, 30% of them had age 51-60 years, 40% of them had age 61-70 years and 16.7% of them had age 71-80 years. Majority (53.34%) male had gender similar study conducted by Kadam V. also observed that age 71-80 years. 56.7% of them were males and 43.3% of them were females. Most of people (16.67%) male had secondary education and (23.34) female had primary. And secondary education similar study conducted by Kadam V. Also observed that 23.3% of them had primary education, half (50%) of them had secondary education, 10% of them had higher secondary education, 10% of them were graduates and 6.7% of them had some other education.

 

Description of the selected physiological parameters (pulse rate, Blood pressure, Respiratory rate, Spo2 before and after administration of diaphragmatic breathing):

In present study average finding of pulse in pre-test mean (122.86), SD(0.8027) and post test mean (117.2%), SD(0.8027). respiration in pre-test mean (27.4), SD(0.6432) and post-test mean (24.8), SD(0.6376). Bp in Pre- test mean (1.65), SD(0.8027) and post-test mean (1.6) SD(0.7216). SPO2 in pre-test mean (60), SD(0.6432) and post-test mean (70) SD(0.7216) similarly study conducted by Kadam V., found that Before administration of diaphragmatic breathing, the average SPO2 of the COPD patients was 97.4 with standard deviation of 2.1. After administration of diaphragmatic breathing technique, the SPO2 increased slightly on 53 day1 remained constant then till day2, again it increased over day 3 onwards. The increase in the SPO2 was checked for significance using paired t-test. The p-values for this assessment were small (less than 0.05) for day3, day 4 and day 5. The null hypothesis was rejected. The increase in SPO2 was significant for day3, day4 and day5 after diaphragmatic breathing technique

 

RECOMMEDATION:†

      A similar study can be done on large population.

      A comparative study can be conducted for various breathing exercises.

      A similar study can be conducted in different setting like outpatient clinics.

      A similar study can be conducted to identify the effect of diaphragmatic breathing on clients having similar co morbidities.

      A similar study can be done with use of control group.

      A similar study can be done on clients with other pulmonary diseases like Asthma, Pulmonary tuberculosis

 

CONFLICT OF INTEREST:

There is no conflict of interest

 

COMPETING INTEREST:

Authors have declared that competing interest exist

 

REFERENCES:

1.     https:// images.app.google/WXQXMn23GPKYAY17.

2.     Kadam.V effectiveness of diaphragramatic breathing on selected physiological parameters of COPD patient in selected hospitals, 2013-2014.

3.     http://www.emro.who.int/emhj- volume- 25-2019/ volume-25 - issue 1/ global - prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease systematic review and metaanalysis.html.

4.     https:// journals/ www.com/lunginds / futtext /2021/11000/ prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary, 2aspx.

5.     https:// www.ncbi.nlm.gavlpmc/ articles/ pmc 337819/.

6.     Jadhav. A obstetrics and Synecology nursing research:- effectiveness of video assisted introduction on awareness and attitude regarding emergency contraceptive among eligible couples residing at Loni( BK),page no-11

7.     Sharma K.S Nursing research statistics,2nd edition, Reed Elsevier India, Pvt, Ltd, 2015, page no-101 polit and hungler, nursing research principal and method,5th edition 2000,J.B Lippincott Publication, page no,-105,109

 

 

 

 

Received on 08.05.2023††††††† Modified on 22.06.2023

Accepted on 30.07.2023†††† ††©A&V Publications All right reserved

A and V Pub J. of Nursing and Medical Res. 2023; 2(4):103-105.

DOI: 10.52711/jnmr.2023.26