Efficacy of Psychological Intervention on Emotional Intelligence among Adolescents in Selected Schools at Erode, India

 

Dr. Sampoornam. W

Professor, Department of Mental Health Nursing, Annai JKK Sampoorani Ammal College of Nursing, Komarapalayam, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: sampoornamwebster@yahoo.in

 

ABSTRACT:

Context: Adolescence is a period of heightened emotionality. Boys are found to be more aware of their weakness than girls. Methods: Prior to the collection of data, permission was obtained from the concerned authority in selected schools at Erode. The research design used for the present study was true experimental design. Simple random sampling technique was used to recruit the study subjects. Study subjects was assigned randomly to either experimental group (n=75) or control group (n=75). Pretest was conducted by using demographic variables and Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test. Experimental group received psychological intervention for 30-45 minutes, twice a week for the period of 1 month. Psychological intervention comprises of VI sessions viz Introduction, SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats) analysis, Recognize emotions, Controlling mood and self-expression, Positive interpersonal relationships, Adaptability and decision Making and Feedback sessions. Control group received standard methods of care. Posttest was conducted at the end of 1st month, by using the same assessment techniques in experimental and control group. Results: Wilcoxon signed rank test and Mann-Whitney U test showed statistical significance in augmenting emotional intelligence in experimental group comparatively to the control group among adolescents.

 

KEYWORDS: Psychological intervention, Emotional intelligence, Adolescents.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Emotional Intelligence signifies the ability to understand and manage ones as well as the others’ emotions. It refers to a combination of skills these include empathy, self-control, self-awareness, sensitivity to the feeling of others, persistence and self-motivation among others1.

 

Adolescence is a crucial period for developing and maintaining social and emotional habits that are important for mental well-being 2. Emotions strongly affect the behavior of adolescents in developmental phases.

 

High emotional intelligence has an impact on the process of good social interaction, the establishment of a good self-concept, the decrease of juvenile delinquency, and the enhancement of academic abilities.  

 

Adolescents who have low emotional intelligent tend to behave poorly, commit deviations and violations to themselves, such as frustration, conflicting irregularities and exacerbating mental health3.

 

Adolescent boys are found to be more responsible, better able to make intelligent decisions using a healthy balance of emotions and reasons. Adolescent boys differ significantly from adolescent girls on self-development dimension of emotional intelligence. Adolescent boys and girls differ significantly on composite score of their emotional intelligence. Boys are found to have higher level of emotional intelligence than girls4.

Findings of the study are useful to policy makers if they want to improve the mental health and psychological well-being of adolescents. There is need for mental health education in schools to raise awareness about the importance of emotional intelligence and psychological well-being to minimize the impact of depression and stress faced by secondary school students.

 

Psychological intervention has a significant impact on resilience among early adolescent girls of experimental group and it has increased the scores on resilience in experimental group. The intervention can be used in similar settings to enhance resilience. Limitations and avenues of further research have also been suggested5.   

 

The efficacy of psychological intervention on emotional intelligence among adolescents was unrecognized and camouflaged in India. Hence the researcher was interested towards this area of study. 

 

METHODS:

Prior to the collection of data, permission was obtained from the concerned authority in selected schools at Erode. The research design used for the present study was true experimental design.    

 

After obtaining written informed consent and assent, adolescents who fulfilled the inclusion criteria was recruited and enrolled in this study.

 

Simple random sampling technique was used to recruit the study subjects. Sampling frame was made, consecutively list of elements numbered and by adopting random number table adolescents were selected. Study subjects was assigned randomly to either experimental group (n=75) or control group (n=75).

 

Pretest was conducted by using demographic variables and Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test. It includes 33-items, self-report using 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) scale for responses.   

 

Experimental group received psychological intervention for 30-45 minutes, twice a week for the period of 1 month. Psychological intervention comprises of VI sessions viz Introduction, SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats) analysis, Recognize emotions, Controlling mood and self-expression, Positive interpersonal relationships, Adaptability and decision Making and Feedback sessions.

 

Control group received standard methods of care. Posttest was conducted at the end of 1st month, by using the same assessment techniques in experimental and control group.  

 

RESULTS:

Wilcoxon signed rank test and Mann-Whitney U test showed statistical significance in augmenting emotional intelligence in experimental group comparatively to the control group among adolescents (Table: 1).

 

DISCUSSION:

The study findings revealed that administration of psychological intervention was significant in enhancing and augmenting emotional intelligence among adolescents. This result is consistent with the study findings of a systematic review and meta-analysis which statistically integrated psychosocial intervention and their effectiveness to improve emotion regulation 6

 

The results suggested that interventions can enhance emotional regulation in youth, and that these improvements correlate with improvements in psychopathology. More RCTs including larger sample sizes, different age groups and psychopathologies are needed to increase our understanding of what works for who and when.

 

A cross sectional study was conducted to identify the importance of socio demographic variables (sex and age), empathy and emotional intelligence (EI) on self-esteem and life satisfaction. A convenience sample of 991 adolescents was studied. The results suggested that being older and low levels of cognitive empathy, emotional clarity and emotional repair predict higher levels of self-esteem. Promoting empathy and EI leads to higher levels of self-esteem and life satisfaction 7.


 

 

Table: 1 Comparison of median, Wilcoxon signed rank test and Mann–Whitney U test value with pre and posttest scores of Emotional Intelligence between experimental and control group  

Variable

Group

Median

(Percentile)

Significance Wilcoxon signed rank test

Significance Mann–Whitney U test

Experimental Group

Pre – Posttest

Control Group

Pre – Posttest

Experimental Group

and Control Group Posttest

Emotional Intelligence

Experimental  Pretest

15

(13-17)

Z = 7.17

P  < 0.001

Z = 2.89

P = 0.42

Median=

20

Median=15

Experimental  Posttest

20

(18-22)

T =8.06

P  < 0.001

Control Pretest

14

(12-16)

Control  Posttest

15

(13-17)

N = 150 (n1=75, n2=75)            


A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the level of emotional intelligence of school going adolescents and to compare the emotional intelligence with its four dimensions/sub-factors. 288 higher secondary school students selected as sample from six schools of three different boards of education. Results of the study revealed that there is no statistically significant difference in emotional intelligence and it’s sub-factors of school going adolescent with respect to their gender grade and board pattern of education. The findings provide a further need on how to more improve upon the emotional intelligence of school going adolescent 8

 

CONCLUSION:

Psychological intervention was quite effective for enhancing emotional intelligence among adolescents. 

 

REFERENCES:

1.      Karibeeran. S, Mohanty. S. Emotional Intelligence Among Adolescents, Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol. 7, No. 3, 2019, pp. 121-124.

2.      WHO, Fact sheets, Adolescent mental health, 28 September 2020.

3.      Nusaibah Nur Furqani Z.A. The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Adolescent Development, Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 2019, volume 395.

4.      Khan MA, Bhat NA. Emotional intelligence of adolescent boys and girls. International Journal of Educational Research and Development Vol. 2(3), pp. 067-071, March 2013

5.      Karthik Lakshmanan R M, T. Mythili.  The Effect of Psychological Intervention on Resilience among Early Adolescent Girls in Chennai Corporation School.

6.      Moltrecht, B., Deighton, J., Patalay, P. et al. (2021). Effectiveness of current psychological interventions to improve emotion regulation in youth: a meta-analysis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 30, 829–848 (2021).

7.      Marian, Navarro-Mateu Diego, Gimenez-Espert Maria Del Carmen, Prado-Gasco Vicente Javier (2020). Emotional Intelligence, Empathy, Self-Esteem, and Life Satisfaction in Spanish Adolescents: Regression vs. QCA Models. Frontiers in Psychology.VOL 11, 1629.

8.      Ghorai, B. C., Kundu, S., Santra, S. (2021). A Study on Emotional Intelligence among School Going Adolescents in Kolkata. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, 14(4), 47-58.

 

 

 

 

Received on 29.10.2022         Modified on 24.11.2022

Accepted on 22.12.2022     ©AandV Publications All right reserved

A and V Pub J. of Nursing and Medical Res. 2023; 2(1):1-3.

DOI: 10.52711/jnmr.2023.01