A study to Assess the Effectiveness of Planned Teaching Programme on Personal Hygiene of daily Routine of Students in selected school Ankola. and with a view to develop Awareness by Lecture Among the class of 5th, 6th 7th Standard Students of PPS School of Ankola

 

 

Ganesh Naik1, Anu Thomas2, Mala Patgar2, Manisha Raikar2, Puneet Naik2,

Rachana Fal Desai2, Sidhi Naik2, Namita Sawant2, Shaina Fernandes2, Sneha Durgekar2

1Lecturer, Department of Child Health Nursing, K.L.E. Institute of Nursing Sciences, Ankola (U.K.)

2Students, Department of Child Health Nursing, K.L.E. Institute of Nursing Sciences, Ankola (U.K.)

*Corresponding Author E-mail: gn30533@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Background: Personal hygiene plays a major role to promote healthy life. This study was performed to assess the current level of knowledge and practicing behavior in regard to hand washing, bathing, tooth brushing, and taking care of nail and hair.  Statement of the Problem: A study to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching programme on personal hygiene of daily routine of students in selected school Ankola. Objectives: To assess the pretest level of knowledge of students regarding personal hygiene; To assess the posttest level of knowledge of students regarding personal hygiene; To find the association between preexisting knowledge on personal hygiene with selected sociodemographic variable. Research Methodology: Research approach: Quantitative evaluative approach; Research design: One Group Pre Test Post Test Design; Research Setting: PPS Ankola; Population: Students studying in 5th 6th 7th student selected rural primary School at Ankola; Sample size: 30 students; Sampling technique: Non probability purposive sampling technique; Tool:  Structured knowledge questionnaire

Results: The result showed that the PPS school students who participated in the study were almost evenly distributed by gender (53.33% males and 46.66%females). Most of the students belonged to the 12-13 years age group. The knowledge of the students regarding general body cleanliness was 80% in post-test as compared to 3.6% in pre-test. Conclusion: Overall trend of knowledge about personal hygiene was in poor condition among students at the time of pre-test. Post-test results were highly satisfactory.

 

KEYWORDS: Diarrhea, hand wash, health, Ankola, personal hygiene, school children.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Hygiene is derived from “Hygeia” - the goddess of health in Greek mythology. It is defined as the science of health and embraces all factors which contribute to healthful living.1

 

Personal hygiene can be defined as the practice of maintaining cleanliness and promoting and preserving body health.

 

Personal hygiene is a condition promoting healthy and sanitary practices by a person. Personal hygiene which includes set of healthy practices are either inherited or deliberately learnt during various phases of the life of a person. Every person develops hygienic practices and standards that have been either taught to them or that they have learnt by themselves. Generally, the practice of personal hygiene is employed to prevent or minimize the incidence and spread of communicable diseases. Good personal hygiene practices are the prerequisites for the formation of a healthy community. The old saying that, Health is Wealth‟ becomes a reality only when good personal hygiene practices are followed by all the members of the society, right from person to family and other bigger segments of the society.2

 

Personal hygiene includes bathing, clothing, washing hands after toilet, care of nails, feet, and teeth; spitting, coughing, sneezing, personal appearance, and healthy habits inculcation in the young people. Personal hygiene training should start at a very young age and should continue through school-age. Also, it recognized that improved personal hygiene is effective in preventing transmission of many diseases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about two million people every year die due to diarrheal diseases. The majority of deaths occur among children under the age of five years. Hygiene practices prevent or minimize disease and the spreading of disease. The microbial growth due to germs may lead to various infectious diseases among children. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the importance of school health has been recognized across countries. The condition of school health may be worse in communities with poor socio-economic conditions and deteriorated living situation. Good personal hygiene is now part of the primary health prevention strategy; it has been proven effective in reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. School is the place where health education granted about crucial aspects of hygiene, environment, and sanitation, as well as social customs.

 

The practices in personal hygiene contribute to good health. Personal hygiene helps in protection against some of the infectious diseases such as typhoid, cholera and dysentery. The practice of hand washing is often forgotten by many people yet it is one of the ways to prevent a plethora of diseases and disorders from developing. Use of unclean hands may make one, for example, contract diseases such as cholera or diarrhea. The hands should always be washed thoroughly before eating or preparing the meals so as to avoid contamination of the meals and hence minimize the development of the diseases related to the same. Furthermore, the act of washing the hair or shaving the hair helps to minimize some of the diseases such as the dandruffs. Untidy hair is always a hiding and breeding place for lice and these should be well treated to prevent spreading and consequently affect others especially in the learning institutions or the family members. Generally, the skin plays a significant role in protecting the body against infections. For this reason, the skin should be cleaned regularly so as to keep it clean and stronger enough to fight infections and effectively protect the body. 3

 

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

A study to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching programme on personal hygiene of daily routine of students in selected school Ankola”.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

Objectives of the study were to,

1.     To assess the pretest level of knowledge of students regarding personal hygiene.

2.     To assess the posttest level of knowledge of students regarding personal hygiene.

3.     To find the association between preexisting knowledge on personal hygiene with selected sociodemographic variable

 

Hypotheses:

Hypothesis -1

The mean posttest knowledge score of students regarding personal hygiene will be significantly higher than the mean pretest knowledge score.

 

Hypothesis-2

There will be significant association between level of knowledge of students regarding personal hygiene with selected socio demographic variables

 

Delimitation:

The study is delimited to:

a) The study is limited to class 5th, 6th, and 7th students of PPE school, Ankola.

b) Study area is limited to students who were present at the time of data collection

 

METHODOLOGY:

·       Research approach: Quantitative evaluative approach

·       Research design: One Group Pre Test Post Test Design

·       Research Setting: PPS ANKOLA

·       Population: Students studying in 5th 6th 7th student selected rural primary school at Ankola

·       Sample size: 30 students

·       Sampling Technique: Non probability purposive sampling technique

·       Tool:  Structured knowledge questionnaire

 

·       Sampling criteria:

Inclusion criteria:

Inclusion criteria are set of predefined characteristics used to identify subjects to be included in a research study. In the present study Inclusion criteria of the 5th 6th 7th standard who are:

       Studying in rural Government school

       Both girls and boys.

       VII standard students

       Willing to participate in the study.

       Presented the time of data collection

 

Exclusion criteria:

Exclusion criteria are those characteristics that disqualify prospective subjects from inclusion in the study. In the present study Exclusion criteria of the 5th 6th 7th standard student are as follows:

       Not willing to participate

       Student who are studying in the 5th 6th 7th standard

 

Content Validity of the Tool:

Content validity examines the extent to which the measurement includes all the major elements relevant to the construct being measured. In order to obtain the validity, the prepared instruments along with problem statement, objectives, operational definitions, structured knowledge questionnaires, lesson plan were submitted to five experts from the field of research and Statistics. The experts gave their valuable suggestions. As per suggestions of the experts were incorporated and necessary corrections on language corrections were made in vernacular tool.

 

Reliability of the Tool:

The reliability of the tool was computed by using Karl Pearson correlation coefficient technique.  The reliability coefficient ‘r’ value of Structured Knowledge Questionnaire and Modified Intravenous Cannulation Skills Check List regarding assessment of Knowledge and Skills of staff nurse with intervention of Simulation was 0.93 and 0.91 respectively.  The developed tool was found to be valid, reliable and feasible to conduct main study.

 

Data Collection Instruments:

The most important aspect of any investigation is the collection of appropriate information which provide an answer to the research question in the study. A data collection instrument or tool is a formal document used to collect and record information an instrument used in research should be the best to obtain the data for drawing conclusions which are pertinent to the study and at the same time add the knowledge in the discipline.

 

RESULTS:

Data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics.

The analysis of the data organized under the fallowing sections.

 

Section 1: Frequency and percentage distribution of subjects according to the socio demographic variable.

Table 2: Frequency and percentage distribution of subjects according to the socio demographic variable.

Sl No.

Base Line Data

Frequency

Percentage (%)

1.

Age (In Years)

           

            

a)      10-11 year

2

6.66

b)     11 -12 year

2

6.66

c)      12-13 year

26

86.66

2.

Gender

 

 

Male

16

53.33

Female

14

46.66

3.

Religion

 

 

a)      Hindu

28

93.33

b)     Christian

1

3.33

c)      Muslim

1

3.33

4.

Class

 

 

a)      5th standard

10

33.33

b)     6th standard

10

33.33

c)      7th standard

10

33.33

5.

Parent Education

 

 

a)      Below 5th standard

3

10

b)     6th to 9th standard

8

26.66

c)      PUC

13

43.33

d)     Degree

6

20

6.

Type of Family

 

 

a)      Joint family

9

30

b)     Nuclear family

21

70

7.

Monthly Income

(In Rupees)

 

 

a)      ≤5000

3

10

b)     5001 -10,000

14

46.66

c)      10,001-15,000

9

30

d)     >15,000

4

13.33

 

The data presented in table 1 indicated

-        Majority of students 26 (86.66%) belonged to age group of 12-13 years

-        Majority of students were male 16 (53.33%) and females 14(46.66%)

-        Majority of students were Hindu 28(93.33%)

-        Majority of students had a family income of 5000 – 10,000 per month 14(46.66%)

-        Majority of students had a nuclear family of 21[70%].

-        Majority of students parents education is at PUC level 13[43.33%]

 

Section 2: Frequency and percentage distribution of knowledge level score of students regarding   personal hygiene

Knowledge

 

 

Intervals

Pre-Test Knowledge Score

 

Post-Test Knowledge Score

 

 

Frequency (f)

(%)

Frequency  (f)

(%)

Inadequate knowledge

0-8

 5

16.66

0

0

Moderate knowledge

9-17

 14

13.33

6

20

Adequate knowledge

18-25

 11

36.66

24

80

 

This table reveals the pre- test and post- test knowledge score of the students of class 5th 6th and 7th. Samples indicates of post- test that moderate knowledge of students scores 6[20%] and adequate knowledge score is 24[80%].

 

Pre-test knowledge score of students of class 5th, 6th, 7th was in adequate knowledge were 5[16.66%]. Moderate knowledge score was 14[13.33%] and adequate knowledge was 11[36.66%]

 

Section 3: Comparison of mean pre-test and post-tests knowledge score level of students regarding personal hygiene to evaluate the effectiveness of structural teaching program

Level of Knowledge

Mean

Standard Deviation

Degree of Freedom

P Value

Calculated ‘T’ Value

Table ‘T’ value

Pre- Test

6.26

2.04

30

0.05

5.59

2.05

Post Test

18.26

0.78

30

0.05

 

The data and the table show that mean post-test knowledge score of samples is significantly higher than the mean pre-test knowledge score i.e., the t table 2.05and the calculated value t = 5.59, which shows that calculated value is greater than the table value.

 

Hence alternative hypothesis was accepted indicating that there will be significant gain in knowledge on Personal hygiene among selected class 5th 6th 7th students in PPS school Ankola.

                                                

DISCUSSION:

The first objective was to assess the pre-test level of knowledge of students regarding personal hygiene.

The study findings showed that in pre- test 5 students had inadequate knowledge, 14 had moderate knowledge, and 11 had adequate knowledge regarding personal hygiene.

 

The second objective was to assess the post- test level of knowledge of students regarding personal hygiene.

Hypothesis -1

The mean post- test knowledge score of students regarding personal hygiene will be significantly higher than the mean pre- test knowledge score.

 

In post- test 0 had inadequate knowledge, 6 had moderate knowledge, and 24 had adequate knowledge regarding personal hygiene.

 

The pre-test mean knowledge score was ±14.2 and standard deviations (S D) ±5.45 were as the post- test mean knowledge score was ±20.1 and standard deviations (SD) ±3.49the calculated paired “t” value was ±4.99which was higher than the table value of 2.05 at 0.05 level of significance hence H1 and H2 was accepted this shows that stimulation was effective in increasing the knowledge of students regarding personal hygiene

 

The third objective was to find the association between the pre -existing knowledge on personal hygiene with selected socio demographic variables.

 

Hypothesis-2

There will be significant association between level of knowledge of students regarding personal hygiene with selected socio demographic variables.

 

The study showed that there was significant association between the knowledge score gender χ2 =11.716, df=2, p=5.99(S)*, religion χ2 =9.908, df=4, p=9.49(S)* class χ2 =12.436, df=4, p=9.49(S)* * Type of family χ2 =7.174, df=2, p=5.99(S)* Monthly income of the family χ2 =8.597, df=6, p=12.59(NS) *, Hence the null hypothesis was rejected and research hypothesis was accepted.

 

The study showed that there was  non significant association  between the knowledge score and Age of the students χ2 =4.699, df=4, p=9.49(NS)*, Parental Educational status χ2 =7.439, df=6,p=12.59 (NS)* Monthly income of the family χ2 =8.597, df=6, p=12.59(NS)*. Hence the null hypothesis was accepted and research hypothesis was rejected.

 

CONCLUSION:

Overall trend of knowledge about personal hygiene was in poor condition among students at the time of pre-test. Post-test results were highly satisfactory.

 

NURSING IMPLICATION:

The findings of the study have implications in the following area: -

·       Nursing education

·       Nursing service

·       Nursing administration

·       Nursing research

 

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Received on 27.10.2022         Modified on 12.11.2022

Accepted on 22.11.2022       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

A and V Pub J. of Nursing and Medical Res. 2022; 1(1):13-17.

DOI: 10.52711/jnmr.2022.04