A cluster randomized study to examine the effectiveness of vignette discussion on sensibility against cyberbullying among adolescents in selected schools at Namakkal

 

Sampoornam. W

Professor, Department of Mental Health Nursing, Annai JKK Sampoorani Ammal College of Nursing, Komarapalayam, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail:

 

ABSTRACT:

Context: The problem of cyberbullying is particularly bad in India which had the highest rate of parents confirming instances of cyberbullying. Methods: After obtaining written informed assent, adolescents who fulfilled the inclusion criteria was recruited and enrolled in this study. Study subjects were allocated into two arms (experimental arm & control arm) as clusters. 50 subjects were allocated in each cluster, in order to prevent sample contamination. Pretest was conducted by using demographic profile & Cyber bullying sensibility scale. Experimental arm received vignette discussion for the development of sensibility against cyberbullying for 20-30 minutes, once in a week for the period of 2 months. Control arm received standard methods of care. Posttest was conducted by using the same assessment techniques in experimental arm & control arm. Results: Wilcoxon signed rank test & Mann-Whitney U test showed statistical significance in increasing the sensibility against cyberbullying in experimental arm comparatively to the control arm among adolescents. Conclusion: Vignette discussion was effective for enhancing the sensibility against cyberbullying among adolescents.

 

KEYWORDS: Vignette discussion, Sensibility, Cyberbullying, Cluster randomization.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

The term cyberbullying, instead, refers to those acts of bullying, harassment and using electronic means such as email, chat, blogs, cell phones, social media or any other form of communication attributable to the web (Pyzalski, J. 2012).

 

Many studies across the world have revealed that there are number of risk factors associated with cyberbullying and their impact in adolescents' health and wellbeing. Socio demographic factors like age, gender, family structure and parent’s education are considered to have association with cyberbullying (Manisha Hamal, 2017).

 

It found that nearly one in five parents worldwide say their child has experienced cyberbullying at least once. A total of 37% of parents across India said their child was bullied online, with 14% of that total saying the bullying occurred on a regular basis (Niall McCarthy, 2018).

 

It has been estimated that roughly 20 to 40% of all adolescents will experience at least one act of cyberbullying (Gustafsson E, 2017). Internet usage in India has grown by leaps and bounds. Cyberbullying across the globe and in India specifically is a complex issue and warrants more attention than it receives. The results procured from a survey conducted across 11 cities in India have been linked to psychological causes and implication of cyberbullying (Vohra, 2016).

 

Table 1: Comparative analysis of pre and posttest sensibility scores between experimental and control arm

Variable

Arm

Median

(Percentile)

Significance

Wilcoxon signed rank test

Significance

Mann–Whitney U test

Experimental arm

Pre – Posttest

Control arm Pre – Posttest

Experimental arm

and Control arm Posttest

Sensibility

Experimental Pretest

25 (23-27)

Z =9.37

P < 0.001

Z =1.89

P = 0.32

Median= 31

Median=28

Experimental Posttest

31 (29-33)

T =10.01

P < 0.001

Control Pretest

27 (25-29)

Control Posttest

28 (26-30)

 

N = 100 (n1=50, n2=50)

 


Sensibility can be regarded as a defense system to a perceived threat. People with high levels of sensibility attempt to be alert during a threatening situation or stimulus, control their surroundings, get to know the possible threat, and develop precautions to protect themselves from any potential harm that could result from that threat. Studies suggest that awareness about cyberbullying can be increased with education (Sulistyawati et al., 2011).

 

Thus, we need to develop prevention programs that help students develop sensibility and coping strategies to avoid cyberbullying. Paucity of nursing research literatures on prevention of cyberbullying initiated the investigator to conduct the present study in order to bridge the research gap. The novelty of this research work was to test the effectiveness of vignette discussion on sensibility against cyberbullying among adolescents.  

 

METHODS:

Prior to the collection of data, permission was obtained from the concerned authority in selected schools at Namakkal. After obtaining written informed assent, adolescents who fulfilled the inclusion criteria was recruited and enrolled in this study. Study subjects were allocated into two arms (experimental arm and control arm) as clusters. 50 subjects were allocated in each cluster, in order to prevent sample contamination. 

 

Pretest was conducted by using demographic profile such as age, gender, grade, family type, information technology device owned, daily internet usage, social network, internet usage purpose and previous awareness regarding cyberbullying. Cyber bullying sensibility scale was used to assess the level of sensibility.

 

Experimental arm received vignette discussion for the development of sensibility against cyberbullying for 20-30 minutes, once in a week for the period of 2 months. The adolescents were encouraged for open communication about cyberbullying, subsequently vignette discussions viz internet safety, online - rights and responsibilities, netiquette and feedback sessions were conducted. Control arm received standard methods of care. Posttest was conducted by using the same assessment techniques in experimental arm and control arm.

 

RESULTS:

Wilcoxon signed rank test and Mann-Whitney U test showed statistical significance in increasing the sensibility against cyberbullying in experimental arm comparatively to the control arm among adolescents. Comparative analysis of the posttest median score between experimental arm (Median= 31) and control arm (Median=28) depicted statistical significance through augmented scores in experimental arm than the control arm (Table 1).

 

DISCUSSION:

The study findings revealed that administration of Vignette discussion was significant against cyberbullying among adolescents. This result is consistent with the study findings of Tanrıkulu et al (2015) who tested the effectiveness of the Sensibility Development Program against Cyberbullying in raising awareness around cyberbullying and reducing cyberbullying behaviors.

 

The program specifically targeted adolescents who were at risk of exposure to cyberbullying behaviors. The Cyberbullying Sensibility Scale (CBSS) was administered to the experimental and the control groups before and after the program. No significant difference was found for the control group, suggesting that the program was effective in helping students develop a level of sensibility against cyberbullying.

Peker and Iskender, (2015) studied the effects of psychological education program on cyberbullying oriented toward human values. A total of 24 students in the 9th and10th grades participated in the research in control and experimental groups. In the study, researchers conducted pre, post and follow up tests. According to the findings obtained in the research, the psychology education program oriented toward human values had a permanent effect on decreasing student’s cyberbullying behaviors.  

 

Chengyan et.al., (2021) conducted a systematic review to examine the global situation, risk factors, and preventive measures taken worldwide to fight cyberbullying among adolescents and children. The prevalence rate of cyberbullying has increased significantly in the observed 5-year period, and it is imperative that researchers from low and middle income countries focus sufficient attention on cyberbullying of children and adolescents. Despite a lack of scientific intervention research on cyberbullying, the review also identified several promising strategies for its prevention from the perspectives of youths, parents and schools. More research on cyberbullying is needed, especially on the issue of cross-national cyberbullying. International cooperation, multi-pronged and systematic approaches are highly encouraged to deal with cyberbullying.

 

CONCLUSION:

Vignette discussion was effective for enhancing the sensibility against cyberbullying among adolescents.

 

REFERENCES:

1.      Pyzalski, J. (2012). From cyberbullying to electronic aggression: typology of the phenomenon. Emotion. Behav. Difficulties 17, 305–317

2.      Manisha Hamal, (2017), Risk Factors of Cyberbullying Among Finnish Adolescents and its effects on their Health: Master’s Thesis, 64.

3.      Niall McCarthy, (2018), New Report: Cyberbullying Is Most Prevalent In India [Infographic]

4.      Gustafsson, E.(2017), Gender Differences in Cyberbullying Victimization Among Adolescents in Europe : A systematic review., Degree project in criminology 30 credits. Malmo University: Faculty of health and society, Department of criminology, 2017

5.      Vohra, Ananya and Donovan, John, (2016), Cyberbullying: A Study of Causes, Implications and Mitigation.

6.      Sulistyawati K, Wickens C and Chui YP (2011) Prediction in situation awareness: confidence bias and underlying cognitive abilities. International Journal of Aviation Psychology 21(2): 153–174.

7.      Tanrıkulu et al (2015). Sensibility Development Program against Cyberbullying. New media and society, Vol. 17(5) 708–719

8.      Peker, A., and Iskender, M. (2015), Investigation of Effect of Human values Oriented Psycho Training Program on Cyber bullying: Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 19(1), 11–22. 

 

 

 

Received on 25.10.2022         Modified on 12.11.2022

Accepted on 21.11.2022       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

A and V Pub J. of Nursing and Medical Res. 2022; 1(1):5-7.

DOI: 10.52711/jnmr.2022.02